Nue fille escort girl noisy le grand

nue fille escort girl noisy le grand

It will be of some historical interest to know that in a law was passed by the Italian Parliament estabUshing in Rome a national chair for the special study of Dante. The chair was first offered to Carducci who dechned it. Then he was in- vited to inaugurate the course, which he did with his discourse on U opera di Dante. The last part of it, given here, deals ex- clusively with the Divina Commedia. Dinanzi alia lo sublime fantasia si apri 1' infinito; e nell' infinito, con r ombra della religione, della storia, della poesia, si proiettavano il passato, il presente, il futuro.

Dante cerco la patria nell' altro mondo: In his ambitious dreams, he conceived the idea of a universal monarchy, but his efforts toward such a realization were a complete failure in Italy. At the death of Henry VII it was rumored that poi- soned sacramental wine was given to him by a Dominican monk.

Tutto cio che il poeta ha scritto ha pensato ha fatto fin ora, si appunta nella S Commedia: Nelle rime era il fiorentino, primo lirico del medio evo; nei trattati, V italiano, IS primo filosofo laico del medio evo; nella Commedia, pur rimanendo il sommo poeta del medio evo, e piii largamente il poeta per eccellenza della gente latina e del cristianesimo, e, piu ancora, il poeta, nel sovrano senso della parola, di tutt' i tempi.

At the close of the Vita Nuova we read: Rossetti's translation of the Vita Nuova. The title of a work in the form of a prose commentary written by Dante on some of his moral poems canzoni. The reference is to the new languaf. Elsewhere Inferno, I, 87 in addressing Virgil, Dante tells him how he is indebted to him for: Lo bello stile che m' ha fatto onore. Beatrice procede dalla Vita nuova e dalla poesia cavalleresca e mistica; ma nella visione in vetta del Purgatorio il culto della donna diviene apoteosi, e Beatrice trasfigurata e la suprema 10 rappresentazione della civilta del medio evo.

Virgilio procede dalla dottrina classica del Convivio: Tra 1' antichita e il medio evo, 15 tra Virgilio e Beatrice, Dante e 1' uomo, il genere umano, che passa con le sue passioni, che ama e odia, erra e cade, si pente e si leva, e purgato e rigenerato e degno di salire alia perfezione dell' essere.

Con che la Commedia e, come il poeta la qualifico, 20 opera dottrinale; perche reca in atto la filosofia morale del Convivio, e specialmente la dottrina circa Tanima umana come disposta e tendente alia perfezione e alia felicita per due vie e per due guise. Ha per soggetto r uomo in quanto per il libero arbitrio e sommesso alia 25 giustizia che premia e puniscc, ha per oggetto rimovere i viventi in questa terra dallo stato di miseria e av- viarli alia perfezione e felicita temporale con I'esercizio delle virtu filosofiche e alia perfezione e beatitudine eterna con 1' esercizio delle teologiche.

Onde la visione, nell' altro mondo, delle anime dannate, penitenti, beate': E, in riguardo alia tendenza dell' anima verso la perfezione e felicita per due vie, temporale ed eterna, r allegoria e di due sensi: E quindi alia base terrena del poema, nella selva, offresi primo Virgilio, simbolo della ragione, della filosofia, dell' impero, a IS scorgere Dante, 1' uomo, alia temporale perfezione e felicita nel paradiso terrestre: The allegorical-moral meaning of the Divina Commedia.

Pero fu bene affermato che la Corn- media contiene della poetica ogni varieta di generi e forme: Pure informata alia scienza del medio evo, ma con s liberta e ardire straordinario di fantasie, e 1' architet- tura dei tre regni della morte. Per tanti gironi e cerchi, quante sono le partizioni dei peccati secondo la dottrina cristiana sottomessa all' etica di Aristotele, lo r inferno si profonda come un baratro fino al centro della terra; e la origine e la ragion d'essere ne e deter- minata con una invenzione terribilmente meravigliosa per dinamica e morale sublimita.

II mostro a mezza la persona sta inca- strato nel centro della terra, e sporge il capo nell' 20 ultimo girone dell' inferno, quarta ghiacciaia dei traditori, voltandolo verso la parte di Gerusalenune ove visse e mori 1' uomo senza pecca, Gesij, e i piedi spinge per 1' altro emisfero volti al monte del purga- torio, ove il primo uomo, Adamo, pecco.

Lucifero, il 25 male, sta cosi tra i due poll, del peccato e della reden- zione, e con la sua caduta origino il purgatorio che 6 mezzo di redenzione. The leader of the revolt of the angels againat their Maker, and hence the personification of evil.

Su la cima mormora e frondeggia la divina foresta del paradiso terrestre, nella quale, agli ultimi confini del nostro pianeta, ap- 15 parisce la mirifica visione dell' impero e della chiesa. In forma di sfere si contengono e abbracciano 1' uno 1' altro; e, avendo per centro il nostro pianeta co '1 suo inferno e purgatorio, 1 Dio lodiamo.

The angels, perfect spirits and ministers of God, who, ac- cording to Christian doctrine attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite , are assigned to three hierarchies and nine choruses or orders.

These terms were used in the Middle Ages to in- dicate, respectively, the following parts of knowledge, grouped as follows: In contrasto alia vertiginosa rapidita del primo mobile sta in sua quiete 5 fermo 1' empireo, il cielo della teologia, ove e Dio, con attorno i nove ordini delle tre gerarchie: Questo e il bene.

Lucifero, il male, relegato nel centre della terra, e per ogni parte egual- mente lontano da quella vita, da quella luce, da quell' amore, che egh ne vede ne sente ne partecipa. Tale e il sacro poema di Dante. E come avanza di 15 gran lunga le altre opere del poeta e del secolo, cosi ne tiene pur sempre certe proprieta che 1' eta nostra non tiene. Nella Vita nuova le apparizioni e gU atti di Beatrice sono tuttora intorno il numero nove: E il tre e il nove regolano tutta la visione e la poesia della Commedia.

La Trinita in mezzo i nove ordini delle tre gerarchie regge i tre regni, ciascun dei quaU distribuito per nove scompartimenti e cantato in trentatre canti a strofi di 25 tre versi, e i canti sommati insieme fanno novantanove pero che il primo dell' inferno non e che prologo a tutti.

Astronomical term used to indicate the ninth heaven. La quale e popolare. Tutta popolare e la primordiale materia fan- tastica della Conmiedia. La vita futura, di cui questa presente e a pena una falsa adombrazione e puo meglio essere una pia preparazione, era stata il sommo pen- 15 siero, tutto il pensiero, del popolo del medio evo, anzi di tutto il popolo cristiano da dodici secoli.

Dante fu la voce di dodici secoli cristiani, che davanti alle visioni intravedute nelle allucinazioni di lor mescolate memorie ed origini, elleniche, italiche, semitiche, drui- 20 diche, odiniche, rimasti erano muti e allibiti di terrore e d' ignoranza.

A kind of poetry of the troubadours of Pro- vence imitated in Italy. The theory is exposed in the work De vulgari eloquentia. I lineamenti del viso attestano in lui il tipo etrusco, quel tipo s che dura ostinato per tutta Toscana mescolandosi al romano e sopraffacendolo. Di sangue romano vanta- vasi egli; e il presentarsi della sua famiglia, come fioren- tina vecchia, senza titoli di nobilta castellana e scnza nomi fino a certo tempo d' altra lingua, fa credibile una lo continuita dai coloni conservatisi in citta e regionc men frequente d' affluenze germaniche.

Indi la profondita della sua visione nella sinccrita, 25 la intensita della rappresentazione nella lucidezza, la sicurta del cogliere il punto esscnzialc nella rassomi- glianza fantastica, il tono interiore nell' imaginazion passionata, il senso musicale nel pensiero creatore.

There is no sufficient uutlionty, however, for such construction. Tale nel crepuscolo estremo del medio evo o nel crepuscolo mattutino del Rinascimento esce Dante Allighieri, primo poeta personale, e gia potentissimo, 20 come piu verun altro. E a pena uscito ricongiunge la dottrina all' arte e 1' arte al sentimento, e 1' arte antica nel sentimento suo e popolare rinfresca e tramandavital- mente nuova.

E tutto quello ch' e piii eccelso e nobile e umano nella poesia delle genti e in lui; ma egli ha 25 certi suoi tocchi che nessuno ebbe prima ne ha poi avuto. Cio che noi facciamo ora, cio che da cotesta lapide si commemora, e piii che una festa, e piii che un fatto. Noi celebriamo, o fratelli, il natale della patria. In the first case the reference is to the feast in honor of the goddess Athena Minerva. In Olympia the people of Greece gathered every four years to celebrate the Olympian games.

Later, at the close of the Republic, such feasts were converted into Roman celebrations. At Athens, Herodotus read publicly his history of the war between the Greeks and the Persians. The University of Bologna was from the very begin- ning deservedly famous for its studies in jurisprudence.

There was born the his- torian Carlo Sigonio and in the province of Modena the great Ludovico Antonio Muratori E allc venienti aprirebbe le braccia Reggio animosa e leg- giadra, questa figlia del console M.

I volghi affollantisi intorno ai baccani e 15 agli scandali, diro cosi, official! Tanto piii siano grazie a te, o nobile Reggio, che neir oblio d' Italia commemori come nella sala di questo palazzo cU citta, or son cent' anni, il 7 gennaio del , fu decretato nazionale lo stcndardo dei tre colori. Risuonano ancora nell' austerita della storia 25 ' Epica Fenara. Both Ariosto and Tasso lived at the court of the duke of Ferrara.

Probably on account of the fabled Phaeton whom Zeus hurled into the river Po. The lines are qu ;ted from his poem La Mascheroniana. Sapranno i popoli di Modena di Ferrara di Bologna qual sia il popolo di Reggio, giusto, energico, generoso; e si animeranno ad emularvi nella carriera della gloria e della virtu.

L' epoca della nostra Re- pubblica ebbe il principio fra queste mura; e quest' 10 epoca luminosa sara uno de' piii bei momenti della citta di Reggio. II presidente del Congresso Cispadano dicea vero. Quale spirito di Dio scese dunque in cotesta sala a illuminare le menti, a rivelare tutta insieme la visione 1 Congresso Cispadano, i. Cispa- dano, from cis, on this side right , and padanus, from Padus, Po.

Like the Greek goddess Hestia the Roman Vesta pre- sided over the public and private hearths. Caius Sempronius Gracchus B. The right of Roman citizenship was later given by Julius Cffisar to the population of Transalpine Gaul. Where the emperor Frederick Barbarossa was defeated in by the united forces of the communes of Lombardy Lombardian League.

Montechiarugolo is a village near Par- ma. There, in a detachment of Austrian soldiers was taken prisoner by a body of volunteers from Reggio. Gavinana, in Tuscany, is the place where the patriot Francesco Ferruccio was defeated and killed 1.

Non rampare di aquile e leoni, non sormontare di belve rapaci, nel lo santo vessiilo; ma i colori della nostra primavera e del nostro paese, dal Cenisio all' Etna; le nevi delle alpi, r aprile delle valli, le fiamme dei vulcani, E subito quel colori parlarono alle anime generose e gentili, con le ispirazioni e gli effetti delle virtu onde la patria sta 15 e si augusta: Noi che 1' adorammo ascendente in Campidoglio, 25 noi negli anni della fanciullezza avevamo imparato ad amarla e ad aspettarla dai grandi cuori degli avi e dei padri che ci narravano le cose oscure ed alte preparate, tentate, patite, su le quali tu splendevi in idea, piii che ' The allusion is very likely to a popular song that begins with the lines: Ora la genera- zione che sta per isparire dal combattuto e trionfato campo del Risorgimento, la generazione che fece lo r Unita, te, o sacro segno di gloria, o bandiera di Mazzini di Garibaldi di Vittorio Emanuele, te com- mette alia generazione che 1' unita deve compiere, che dee coronare d' idee e di forza la patria risorta.

Se una favilla vi resti ancora nel sangiie dei vostri padri del Quarantotto e 25 del Sessanta, non vi pare che su i monumenti della gloria vetusta questo vessillo della patria esulti piu 1 The reference is to the revolutionary movement of Later in this page mention is made also of the revolutionary outbreaks of 18G0.

O giovani, T Italia non puo e non vuole es- sere I'impero di Roma, se bene I'eta della violenza non e finita pe'validi: Ma ne anche ha da essere la nazione lo cortigiana del Rinascimento, alia merce di tutti: The glorious revolution of the citizens of Milan in which lasted five days. The people then succeeded in driving the Aus- trians ficm the city.

It must be said that vic- tory at San Martino was hastened by the decisive victory of the allied French army at Solferino. One of the hills of Rome.

There Garibaldi tried in vain to de- fend Rome against the French in The regular Italian army entered Rome, Sept. Tornate, o giovani, alia scienza e alia conscienza de' padri e riponetevi in cuore quelle che fu 11 sentimento il voto il proposito di quel vecchi grand!

L' Italia avanti tutto! L' Italia sopra tutto! In Italian poetry a verse is a rhythmic line made up of a fixed number of syllables, stressed and unstressed. By tonic accent is meant the stress placed upon the most strongly pronounced syllable of a word, and, according to the position of such accent, words themselves are divided into three classes: Piane are called such words as have the ac- cent upon the penultimate syllable, as mare; sdruc- ciole, such as have it upon the antepenultimate, as nohile; tronche, such as have it upon the last syllable, as cittd.

There are also words with the accent upon the fourth and even the fifth syllable from the last, but they are very rare. By rhythmic accent is meant the special emphasis given to certain tonic ac- cents in a fine so as to obtain a certain division of time. From the position of the rhythmic accents de- pends altogether the harmony of verse. For rhythmic necessity, the tonic accent of some words may be displaced, as from umile, umilc; oceano, ocedno; iencbre, ienebre, etc.

A verse may be piano, sdrucciolo or tronco ac- cording as it ends with a piana, sdrucciola or tronca. But since a verse must always be considered piano, as far as the number of syllables is concerned, it follows that all syllables after the last one stressed count as one, and when the verse is tronco a syllable must be supplied after the last accent.

Thus the following lines are settenari lines of seven syllables , although the second contains eight syllables and the third only six: Orba di tanto spiro Cosi percossa attonita La terra al nunzio sta Manzoni V. In counting the syllables of a verse syneresis, dieresis and elision must be taken into account. Syneresis is the coalescence of two consecutive vowels. Purpurea veste di ceruleo lembo Petrarca 2.

Sparse per la funere-a campagna Foscolo Note 1. The dieresis occurs almost invariably between two vowels of which the first is either o, e, or a and the second is accented. E cominciommi a dir soave e plana Dante Te beata gridai per le felici Foscolo Or da piiura, or da vergogna offese Petrarca Note 2. The dieresis is obligatory at the end of a hnc be- tween two vowels of which the first is stressed. Elision is the contraction of two syllables into one when of two consecutive words in a verse the first ends and the next begins with a vowel.

Plaudono i monti al carme e i boschi e I'acque Carducci Note. When the first of two consecutive words ends with a stressed vowel, eUsion does not take place. Pero pur va ed in andando ascolta Dante Remark. The line Plaudono i monti al carme e i boschi e 1' acque shows that elision takes place also in the case of three consecutive vowels. It must be borne in mind, however, that elision may mean con- traction or fusion of vowels only as far as the counting of syllables is concerned.

In reading, the sound of each vowel cannot be wholly obliterated. In this case elision simply means that the length of time otherwise necessary to pronounce distinctly two or three con- secutive vowels must be reduced to one-half or one- third respectively. According to the number of syllables, verses are named as follows: Of these, the first four called versi hrevi need have but one rhythmic accent upon the last tonic syllable.

The ottonario, novenario, decasillabo and en- decasillabo, known as versi lunghi, may be considered as formed by the fusion of two versi brevi. They have at least two rhythmic accents, one upon the last tonic syllable of the verse, the other upon the tonic imme- diately preceding the point of fusion of the two versi brevi. The following are examples of versi lunghi: In verses like this, having the rhythmic accent upon the fifth and eight syllable, there is usually a third accent upon the second syllable.

The sonnet is usually written in endecasillabi but shorter lines are sometimes used see Visione. According to the order of rhymes we may have various schemes. Of these, only the follow- ing are illustrated in the selections given. Volgono al lido, omai perduto, in tanto s Le memorie la faccia lacrimosa; E vinte le speranze in faticosa Vista s' abbatton sovra il remo infranto. Ma dritto su la poppa il genio mio Guarda il cielo ed il mare, e canta forte lo De' venti e de le antenne al cigolio: Voghiam, voghiamo, o disperate scorte, Al nubiloso porto de 1' obllo, A la scogliera bianca de la morte.

Metre — Third scheme. Passa la nave mia colma d' obUo Per aspro mar. Passa la nave mia con vele nero, Con vele nere pc '1 selvaggio maro. Ei t' esorta e ti punge, e tu co '1 lento Giro de' pazienti occhi rispondi. Da la larga narice umida e nera lo Fuma il tuo spirto, e come un inno lieto II mugghio ne '1 sereno aer si perde; E de '1 grave occhio glauco entro V austera Dolcezza si rispecchia ampio e quieto II divino de '1 pian silenzio verde.

Metre — Second scheme. Metre — First scheme. Sacred to the ancients because ofifered in sacrifice; for the poet it is the symbol of labor. The marshes extending along the seashore between Pisa and Civitavecchia, not far from Rome.

For there the poet was born, and his lion-like nature and his disdainful lyre may be a reflection of the rugged aspect of his native country.

Oh, quel che amai, quel che sognai, fu in vano s E sempre corsi, e mai non giunsi il fine; E dimani cadro. Ma di lontano Pace dicono a '1 cuor le tue colline Con le nebbie sfumanti e il vcrde piano Ridente ne le pioggie mattutine.

Apriva 1' anima pensosa 1' ale Bianche de' sogni verso un' idea. Each line is formed of two quinari coupled together. Notice that the first qidnario of lines 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14 is sdrucciolo. Similarly Petrarch in a sonnet A Valchiuaa: Ben riconosco in voi 1' usate fomne. IS Tu fior de la mia pianta Percossa e inaridita, Tu de r inutil vita Estremo unico fior, Sei ne la terra fredda, 2o Sei ne la terra negra; Ne il sol pill ti rallegra Ne ti risveglia amor.

Metre — The poem is written in settenari arranged in quartine having the following distribution of rhymes: Gira su' ceppi accesi Lo spiedo scoppiettando: Metre — See Pianto Antico. Imitation op Latin Metres. In the fifteenth century there was an attempt in Italy to imitate Latin metres. The quantita- tive system was first introduced and verses were written without consideration for word-accent.

It was altogether a failure, how- ever. Later on it was observed that Latin verse read with re- gard to tonic accent, and not with regard to arsis and thesis, gave the harmony of Itahan verse. Then the vast preponderance of 1 The poet sketches in this poem the usual and typical Italian scenes of late vintage time. Martin's day falls on Nov. To Car- ducci is due the honor of having fixed with laws this form of poetry, that he called Barbara, and of which he is the highest exponent.

The two Latin alcaics are rendered in Italian by two decasillabi made up of one quinario piano and one quinario sdrucciolo. The third Latin verse, a trochaic dimeter, is rendered with a novenario, and the fourth, composed of two dactyls and a trochaic dipody, with a decasillabo. The latter may be formed in the following ways: By coupling two quinari. IL By using a decasillabo with rhythmic accents on the third, sixth and ninth syllable.

By a verse made up of a quinario sdrucciolo and a quadernario piano. By a verse which corresponds to an endecasil- labo shortened of its first syllable. In this poem, the fourth line of each stanza follows scheme I.

The river Adige divides Verona into two sections which are connected by several large bridges. Verona became the rcaidcnco of Theodoric after he defeated Odoacer tliorc in The barbarians brought into Italy by Odoacer in were called Heruli. Thcodoinir, father of Theodoric, after Attila's death freed his nation from the yoke of the Huns and became the head of the Amal dynasty, which for two centuries ruled over the Ostrogoths.

That is, sacred to Odin, who in the Scandinavr'an mythology is the chief of the gods. The mercy of the conquerors was implored in the name of religion by the unarmed descendants of the Romans. Italy w;us united in In this poem the fourth line may follow any one of the schemes. Of all the poets who have written Napoleonic odes Hugo, Byron, Manzoni, Lamartine, Verlaine Carducci is perhaps the one who has shown most poetically the Nemesis of the Bonaparte family.

That is, the glory and empire which the prince hoped to at- tain; fantasmi, because unattained. The young duke of Reichstadt, son of Napoleon I, who was held practically as a prisoner by his maternal grandfather at the court of Austria, and there brought perhaps to a premature death for reasons of state largely in the manner suggested by the poet.

Marie Louise, however, was able to see her dying son. Such was not to be the fate reserved to the son, es- pecially in view of the father's uncontrasted supremacy in Evrope at the time of the Crimean war.

Because with the fall of Sebastopol the Crimean war came practically to an end. The prince was born in , at the time when the former splendor of the Bonaparte seemed to be permanently restored and at a time most ominous for the future.

The Vendome Column, erected by Napoleon I in At the time, really, to the oppressed peoples of Europe and especially to the Italians, the Napoleonic dynasty appeared as a beacon of hope.

The reference is to the punishment that sooner or later is meted out to whomsoever tries to further his private interest through usurpation. The closing lines of a short study by Carducci Vol.

Fu la giustizia; la quale altro non e che 1' armonia dei fatti umani e cho nei fatti umani svolgendosi annuUa e vendica prima o poi le offese recate al diritto. Noi che erediamo al diritto, alia giustizia, alia liberta, amiamo credere aneora che Lipsia e Waterloo facessero la vendetta del 18 brumaio, e che il regno e la caduta ingloriosa del nepote fossero debita espiazione non pure al 2 diceinbre, ma alia usurpazione, al dispoti.

Non s' inganna impunemente il genere umano n6 coi plebisciti ni colle vittorie. Poetic for tossico, poison. Where Napoleon I was born. Letizia is but the Latin Icetitia, joy. From a note by Carducci. It seems, however, that expressions occur in Laplace's private letters inconsistent with the atheistical opinions he is commonly believed to have held.

The mother of Napoleon I never shared in the splendors of her son, but lived a disconsolate life till she died in Rome in Fatale is here u. Fatale is similarly used by Manzoni in II cinque maggio.

Da gli occhi d' aquila. The reference is to the piercing eagle eyes of Napoleon L Cf. Dante, Inferno, IV, , speaking of Caesar: Cesare armato con occhi grifagni. Boschi di lauro frondeggiano dietro spirando effluvi e murmuri ne la sera. Davanti, larga, nitida, Candida splende la luna: The fourth hne of each stanza is made up of a quinario sdrucciolo and a quadernario piano. Niobe personifies in mythology maternal grief endured with dignity.

Niobe had all her sons killed before her eyes. The episode is related by Ovid Metamorphoses, VI, et seq. The great Italian patriot gathered a thousand of his former volunteers at Quarto, a small village near Genoa. Seizing two vessels, the Piemonte and the Lombardo, they set sail for Sicily on the night of May 5, The government of Piedmont was secretly in sympathy with the expedition.

This word may have been suggested here by a recollection of that line in Dante Puryatorio, VI, 78 , where Italy is bitterly apostrophized as donna.

Italy had for centuries been deprived of a national ruler. Military or traveling cloak Sp. Garibaldi had previously fought for the cause of liberty in. The volunteers could not assemble in a body since they were to arouse no suspicion. S Una corona di luce olimpica cinse i fastigi bianchi in quel vespero del cinque di maggio, Vittoria fu il sacrificio, o poesia. E tu ridevi, stella di Venere, lo stella d' Italia, stella di Cesare: Italian patriot who organized before Garibaldi an unsuccesa- ful expedition to Southern Italy and started from Genoa on June 25, Byron, the author of Childe Harold, left Genoa on board the Hercules with other adventurers bound for Greece, where he died at Missolonghi, April 19, The family of Julius Csesar claimed its origin from Venus.

Pregnant with future events. Flebile, acuta, stridula fischia 5 la vaporiera da presso. Plumbeo il cielo e 11 mattino d' autumao come un grande fantasma n' e intorno. Dove e a che move qucsta, che affrettasi a 'carri foschi, rawolta e tacita 10 gente? In this poem the fourth line of each stanza follows scheme II.

The double line of lights gives the poet the imprcs- Bion as if they were running after one another. Similarly in Fuori alia Certosa di Bologna: And also in the ode Davanti S. Guido, speaking of two rows of cypresses: E fuggiano e pareano un corteo nero Che brontolando in fretta in fretta va. And again in the poem Su I'Adda: Le mura dirutc di Lodi fuggono arrampicandosi nere al declivio verde e al docile colle.

The image is certainly striking but as yawning conveys the idea of drowsiness, so sbadigliando, here, seems to conipletc and strengthen the idea of the preceding accidtosi. E gli sportelli sbattuti al chiudere paion oltraggi: Adjective coined by Carducci.

The word generally means the load carried by animals. Fremea la vita ncl tepid' aere, 5 fremca 1' estate quando mi arrisero; e il giovine sole di giugno si piacea di baciar luminoso in tra i riflessi del crin castanei la molle guancia; come mi' aureola 10 piu belli del sole i miei sogni ricingean la persona gentile.

Oh qual caduta di foglie, gelida, continua, muta, greve, su 1' anima! Mescete in vetta al luminoso colle, 10 mescete, amici, il biondo vino, e il sole vi si rifranga: A me tra '1 verso che pensoso vola venga 1' allegra coppa ed il soave fior de la rosa che fugace il verno 20 consola e muore. Metre — This is a sapphic ode. The first three lines of the Latin sapphic are rendered in Italian with three endecasillahi, and the Latin adonius with a quinario.

In the neighborhood of Rome. A young woman beloved by Horace Od. Here, a fictj- j tious name of a lady. Morremo; e sempre faticosa intorno s de 1' almo sole volgera la terra, mille sprizzando ad ogni istante vite come scintille; vite in cui nuovi fremeranno amori, vite che a pugne nuove fremeranno, lo e a nuovi numi canteranno gl' inni de r avvenire.

E voi non nati, a le cui man' la face verra che scorse da le nostre, e voi disparirete, radiose schiere, 15 ne r infinito.

Addio, tu madrc del pcnsier mio breve, tcrraj e de 1' alma fuggitiva! A powerful pootioal vision of the scicntifio concep- tion of tlie logmdation of the sun's energy. See Lecontc do Lisle, Lc dernier dieu in Poin. Da Cipri avanzando veleggia La nave crociata latina. Metre — This poem is written in novenari. Each stanza is composed of two quartine, each quartina hav- ing an independent order of rhymes i. A B A B C D C D with the exception of the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, and last stanza in which the order of rhymes is as follows: In form, the poet has imitated the metre of the romance.

For a comprehensive view of the story of Rudel, the reader is referred to a masterly study by Carducci in Studi Saggi e Discorsi. The following translation by Carducci from a Provencal manuscript of the thirteenth century will throw, it is hoped, sufficient light on the poem: Innamorossi della contessa di Tripoli senza vederla, per lo gran bene e la gran cortesia ch' egli sent!

E per volonta di vederla si crocio, e misesi in mare per andare a vederla. E allora nella nave lo prese una grande malattia, si che quelli che erano con lui pensarono ch' ei sarebbe morto nella nave; ma tanto fecero che lo condussero a Tripoli in un albergo per morto. E fu fatto assapere alia contessa; ed ella venne a lui al suo letto, e preselo entro le sue braccia.

E quando egli seppe ch' era la contessa, si ricovro il vedere, 1' udire e lo spirare; e lodo Iddio e il ringrazio che gli aveva la vita sostenuta tanto ch' ei 1' avesse vista.

E in questo mori tra le braccia della contessa. Ed ella lo fee? In vista a la spiaggia asiana 5 Risuona la nota canzone: Messaggio vengo io del signore Di Blaia, Giaufredo Rudel. Blaye, a town north of Bordeaux whence Rudcl started on his journey. In the Asiatic provinces of Syria; the city was taken from the Mohammedans by the Crusaders in Vinors do terra loinRdana, Per vos totz lo cors mi dol.

Le son du cor s'aJJUye vers lea bois. Ei viene e si muor. Vi saluta, j Signora, il poeta fedel. S La dama guardo lo scudiero 1 A lungo, pensosa in sembianti: Poi surse, adombro d' un vel nero La faccia con gli occhi stellanti: II primo al fedele rechiamo ' E r ultimo motto d' amore.

Deh fa che a la dolce sua mano ; 2o Commetta 1' estremo respir! La favola breve e finita, II vero immortale e 1' amor. In dcr Liebe nur ist Wahrheit, Und dich licb' ich, ewig Schone. Vi aspetto al novissimo bando. Stress upon the last syllable is, of course, employed and in accordance with Carducci's usage. Often used as a noun. OJUu used as a noutt. OJten used as a noun.

Antiochia, a province in Asia. Appennino and Appennini, Aj - peniiines. Often used 06 a noun. Cenisio, the Mont-Cenis in the Alps, cento, hundred, centro, center, ceppo, block, log.

Cipri, the island of Cyprus. Dio, God; pet — , in the name of heaven. Emilia, a territorial division of Italy in which Bologn,a is located. There the theo- logians placed the seat uf God. Gil estensi, the ducal family of Este. Etna, the volcano in Sicily. Fiesole, a suburb of Florence. Germania, Germany, germanico, German, germe, m. Literally, the term applies to each of the three divisions of the seventh circle of Dante's "Inferno. Libano, Lebanon a chain of mountains along the seacoast of Syria.

Marsiglia, Marseilles French city on the Mediterranean. Mincio, Mincius a river in Lomhardy crossing the coun- try where Virgil was born. Used also re- fiexively. Past part, of morire. Often used instead of a relative pronoun. Often used for em- phasis. Often redundant or used for emphasis. Used also as a noun, chmbing. Often used as a noun, fermentation. Rinascimento, Renaissance rinfrescare, to refresh. Past part, of scrivere.

Sparse, past part, of spargere. Past part, of 6ssere. Tavola, — rotonda, the poems of the Round Table, tavola, table; picture, te, you, to you. Tirreno, Tyrrhene sea a part of the Mediterranean sea along the western coast of Italy. Literally, the word has reference to the revival of classical learning during the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- turies.

Used also as a noun. Often used instead of essere to form the passsive construction. Catlicrine, Catherinette ct Catarlna, Boards,,. Game of tlie Caesars In a box 1. Le Gendre de M. How to Judge a Horse — 1. Una Notte Bizzarra Benito, El Voto, Fucgo h Bordo French Verbs at a Glance Fables Choisies de la Fontaine Boards,.

Der Praktische Deutsche — 1. Le Testament de C6sar Girodot Langue Fraugaise, La 2me parlie — 1. Le Petit Tambour see Bourn Bourn. STodcrn Biding and Horse Educa- tion — 2. Beck's French Verb Form Maupassant's Contes et Nouvelles Simple Grammaire Francaise — l.

Rostand's Cyrano dc Bcrgcrac. En Voyage foi toun? Common Dirticultics in Readins French — 1. B, I'oquelin de Mulif: Chatcaubriand'si Atala, with Notes and Vocabulary C.

Progi'essive Pronouncing French Reader Bds,. La Lingua Italiana — 1. French Verb Form Boards,. D, Alarcon's El Final de Norma 75 1. Manual of French Verbs —. Well printed and have notes in English by competent authorities. Diez de la Cor- tina, B. Glance at the Difficulties of German Grammar —. Salvptte et Bemadou, Dn Teneur de Livres. Drillmaster in German — 1.

Constructive Process for Learning German — 1. M DuCroquet's French Verbs —. Lectures et Conversations, Boards,. An Elementary French Grammar.. Brief Italian Grammar with Exercises —.

Claretie's La Frontifcre L'Ami Fntz Comddie a. Fra le Corde di im Contrabasso Fables Choisies Beck Boards,.

Game nf Mythology In a Box. Chateaubriand's Les Avcntures du Demiti Abencerage C0 — — GAY. Alexandre's Catherine, Catherinette et Catarina, Boards,. Men Livrede Petitc-s Histoirea 1. La Duchesse Couturifero La Pluie et le Beau Temps About's Le Buste French Verb Drill Tablet Form,.

Cabana's El Desddn Con el Desdfe Vent d'Ouest and La Soupifere Lessons in Botany — 1. Quatre-Vingt-Treize Half Leather, 3. Shakespeare Calendar PeriJetual 1. Bohemian Legends and Other Poems 50 1. Le Voyage de M.

Sandcan's La Roche aux Mouettes. Antour d'un Berccau French Grammar Collet Boards,. Contes de Balzac — 1. ITeneros' La Indepeiidencia Sardou's Le Pcrle Noire Iklp for tlie SlUfly of French —. Russell's Horace's Art of Poeti-y —. Le Verbe en quatre tableaux synnptique. Lo Voyage de M. Estebanez's Un Drama Nuevo L'Auberge and other stories including: Drill in French Pronunciation and Reading Boards,.

Les Deux Souuu W Le Bourgeois Geiitilliomme Les I'recieuses Itidicules Maid of Montauk Net, - l. Bornier's La Kille do HoKand F, Proveufal Lyric iioaids,:! Seo Songs with Music. LivTC do I'lSleve — l. OQ du Maltrc — 1. Protection of Woodlands — 3. And like Proust, he thought everything in the world existed only to fill the pages of a book. Then he asked him if he liked truffles, and Joyce replied that he did.

After that the conversation petered out. Joyce was tormented by migraines and a burning sensation in his eyes, while Proust grumbled about his stomach ache.

This is, more or less, all there is to say about the meeting. A meeting that soon became legend, but which culminated in an exchange of wretched remarks about truffles and stomach ache. There are two photographs showing Anton Chekhov and Leo Tolstoy together at Gaspra, where the author of War and Peace had moved in , to recuperate from a succession of illnesses in the warm sun of Crimea.

Chekhov, who lived nearby in Yalta, heard Tolstoy was there and went to visit him, even though his own state of health was very precarious. Chekhov always became anxious before a meeting with Tolstoy: You can see it in the photographs: Chekhov is dressed in a dark suit and matching hat, a white shirt and tie and a pince-nez.

Sitting hunched, with his legs tightly crossed and his hands clasped around his knee, he looks as though he wants to take up the least space possible. Tolstoy, on the other hand, looks very relaxed: In the other photograph, Tolstoy is sitting at a little table, on the same terrace.

He appears almost contrite. During this meeting, Tolstoy spoke a good deal, as usual, addressing a wide range of subjects. When the moment came for them to part he asked his friend to give him a farewell kiss. As Chekhov leaned forwards to embrace him, Tolstoy whispered earnestly in his ear: Shakespeare was a terrible writer, but your plays are worse than his. And to where can I follow your characters?

Yet he continued to regard the lack of action in such plays as an unforgivable defect. Chekhov, on the other hand, worshipped Tolstoy like a god. On 11 December , he wrote in a letter to his publisher, Alexei Suvorin: Actually, what he admired most about Tolstoy was the regal contempt he showed towards all writers.

The meeting was far from disappointing. Tolstoy, in a letter to his son a few months later, described Chekhov as a gifted man with a kind heart. He described in a letter how he had felt at ease, as though in his own home, and had conversed freely with Lev Nikolayevich. Chekhov had been taken there as an emergency after his first serious pulmonary haemorrhage, which had happened over dinner in a restaurant.

Diagnosed with advanced tuberculosis, he was confined to bed and a regime of silence for several days. Only his closest relatives were allowed to visit him and then only for a short time. But when Tolstoy arrived, wrapped in his enormous bearskin coat, no one had the courage to turn him away. However, sentenced to silence, he was unable to explain himself better, though he later remarked in a letter to a friend: These two had in common a private supernatural experience that had marked both their lives: For years, despite the most favourable circumstances for a perfect meeting, every plan to bring them together comes to nothing, foiled by a series of hitches, misunderstandings and unexpected events.

But at last the death of one the two—the woman, who had heart disease—achieves what had never proved possible in life. One of the most interesting aspects of the meetings between Chekhov and Tolstoy is that communication between them was almost always indirect, in letters or diary entries, and especially through other people. They met rarely and almost always in the presence of others: But did they ever truly meet?

Yet incomprehension pervaded their meetings. Their paths led in opposite directions. Perhaps, without wanting to admit it, they felt threatened by each other. Chekhov, for his part, never relinquished his Oedipal attitude towards Tolstoy. He never forgave the conservatism of his artistic judgements nor did he share his moral condemnation of modern society. And yet he thought him the greatest of all.

Some time after the disastrous dinner at the Hotel Majestic, James Joyce said he regretted the missed opportunity, even though his relationship with Proust remained ambivalent.

But when Proust died, on 18 November , six months after the meeting at the Majestic, Joyce went to his funeral. Violet e Sidney Schiff erano una mondanissima coppia di ricchi, colti e cosmopoliti inglesi che viveva tra Londra e Parigi.

Lui era un traduttore e uno scrittore che usava lo pseudonimo di Stephen Hudson, ma era soprattutto un mecenate che conosceva i più grandi artisti e talenti del modernismo.

Il 18 maggio i due organizzarono quella che doveva restare nella memoria storica come la cena del secolo, una serata dove far incontrare i due più grandi romanzieri del Novecento: Marcel Proust e James Joyce. Gli Schiff erano amici e ammiratori fanatici di Proust. Proust era molto malato, faceva abuso di svariate droghe e viveva per la sua opera: Seppure sempre a corto di denaro, lo scrittore spendeva senza ritegno, era un forte bevitore e aveva un carattere notoriamente difficile.

Anche lui, come Proust, non stava bene in salute: Si chiuse nel suo abituale silenzio e ogni tanto sbuffava o sonnecchiava. Gli Schiff lo accolsero con tutti gli onori e lo fecero sedere accanto a Joyce, come previsto. Proust, per rompere il ghiaccio, chiese a Joyce se conoscesse un certo duca, e Joyce rispose di secco di no. Infine entrambi si lamentarono dei loro malanni: Un incontro che divenne presto leggenda, ma che si concluse con un misero scambio di battute sui tartufi e sul mal di stomaco.

Lo si capisce anche guardando le foto: In abito scuro, camicia bianca e cravatta, cappello intonato al vestito e pince nez , se ne sta curvo, con le gambe rigidamente accavallate e le mani intrecciate al ginocchio, quasi come se volesse occupare il minor spazio possibile. Tolstoj, invece, appare molto disinvolto: Del resto, non era la prima volta che il vecchio scrittore criticava il suo teatro.

Una volta gli disse:

O giovani italiani, i vostri padri e i fratelli 1 Morgagni, Giovan Battista , professor of anatomy at the ITni- versity of Bologna. Deservedly famous for the many contributions which opened a new horizon to medical science. Triste favola suona, e bocche non cuori anche tra noi la ripetono, che narra lo scadimento e la oscu- razione delle stirpi latine.

Oh, noi non vogiiamo ne 5 spegnerci ne imputridire. Raccoglietevi, o giovani, in cuore la costanza e la gloria degli avi magnanimi che fecero la rivoluzione dei Comuni e il Rinascimento, che discoprirono nuovi continenti alia operosita umana, nuovi campi all' arte, nuovi metodi alia scienza. E lo r arte e la scienza amatele di amore: E siate buoni, e credete: Cosi avverra che la scienza vi afforzi, che 1' arte vi consoli, che la patria 2o vi benedica. It will be of some historical interest to know that in a law was passed by the Italian Parliament estabUshing in Rome a national chair for the special study of Dante.

The chair was first offered to Carducci who dechned it. Then he was in- vited to inaugurate the course, which he did with his discourse on U opera di Dante. The last part of it, given here, deals ex- clusively with the Divina Commedia. Dinanzi alia lo sublime fantasia si apri 1' infinito; e nell' infinito, con r ombra della religione, della storia, della poesia, si proiettavano il passato, il presente, il futuro.

Dante cerco la patria nell' altro mondo: In his ambitious dreams, he conceived the idea of a universal monarchy, but his efforts toward such a realization were a complete failure in Italy.

At the death of Henry VII it was rumored that poi- soned sacramental wine was given to him by a Dominican monk. Tutto cio che il poeta ha scritto ha pensato ha fatto fin ora, si appunta nella S Commedia: Nelle rime era il fiorentino, primo lirico del medio evo; nei trattati, V italiano, IS primo filosofo laico del medio evo; nella Commedia, pur rimanendo il sommo poeta del medio evo, e piii largamente il poeta per eccellenza della gente latina e del cristianesimo, e, piu ancora, il poeta, nel sovrano senso della parola, di tutt' i tempi.

At the close of the Vita Nuova we read: Rossetti's translation of the Vita Nuova. The title of a work in the form of a prose commentary written by Dante on some of his moral poems canzoni. The reference is to the new languaf. Elsewhere Inferno, I, 87 in addressing Virgil, Dante tells him how he is indebted to him for: Lo bello stile che m' ha fatto onore.

Beatrice procede dalla Vita nuova e dalla poesia cavalleresca e mistica; ma nella visione in vetta del Purgatorio il culto della donna diviene apoteosi, e Beatrice trasfigurata e la suprema 10 rappresentazione della civilta del medio evo. Virgilio procede dalla dottrina classica del Convivio: Tra 1' antichita e il medio evo, 15 tra Virgilio e Beatrice, Dante e 1' uomo, il genere umano, che passa con le sue passioni, che ama e odia, erra e cade, si pente e si leva, e purgato e rigenerato e degno di salire alia perfezione dell' essere.

Con che la Commedia e, come il poeta la qualifico, 20 opera dottrinale; perche reca in atto la filosofia morale del Convivio, e specialmente la dottrina circa Tanima umana come disposta e tendente alia perfezione e alia felicita per due vie e per due guise.

Ha per soggetto r uomo in quanto per il libero arbitrio e sommesso alia 25 giustizia che premia e puniscc, ha per oggetto rimovere i viventi in questa terra dallo stato di miseria e av- viarli alia perfezione e felicita temporale con I'esercizio delle virtu filosofiche e alia perfezione e beatitudine eterna con 1' esercizio delle teologiche. Onde la visione, nell' altro mondo, delle anime dannate, penitenti, beate': E, in riguardo alia tendenza dell' anima verso la perfezione e felicita per due vie, temporale ed eterna, r allegoria e di due sensi: E quindi alia base terrena del poema, nella selva, offresi primo Virgilio, simbolo della ragione, della filosofia, dell' impero, a IS scorgere Dante, 1' uomo, alia temporale perfezione e felicita nel paradiso terrestre: The allegorical-moral meaning of the Divina Commedia.

Pero fu bene affermato che la Corn- media contiene della poetica ogni varieta di generi e forme: Pure informata alia scienza del medio evo, ma con s liberta e ardire straordinario di fantasie, e 1' architet- tura dei tre regni della morte. Per tanti gironi e cerchi, quante sono le partizioni dei peccati secondo la dottrina cristiana sottomessa all' etica di Aristotele, lo r inferno si profonda come un baratro fino al centro della terra; e la origine e la ragion d'essere ne e deter- minata con una invenzione terribilmente meravigliosa per dinamica e morale sublimita.

II mostro a mezza la persona sta inca- strato nel centro della terra, e sporge il capo nell' 20 ultimo girone dell' inferno, quarta ghiacciaia dei traditori, voltandolo verso la parte di Gerusalenune ove visse e mori 1' uomo senza pecca, Gesij, e i piedi spinge per 1' altro emisfero volti al monte del purga- torio, ove il primo uomo, Adamo, pecco. Lucifero, il 25 male, sta cosi tra i due poll, del peccato e della reden- zione, e con la sua caduta origino il purgatorio che 6 mezzo di redenzione.

The leader of the revolt of the angels againat their Maker, and hence the personification of evil. Su la cima mormora e frondeggia la divina foresta del paradiso terrestre, nella quale, agli ultimi confini del nostro pianeta, ap- 15 parisce la mirifica visione dell' impero e della chiesa. In forma di sfere si contengono e abbracciano 1' uno 1' altro; e, avendo per centro il nostro pianeta co '1 suo inferno e purgatorio, 1 Dio lodiamo.

The angels, perfect spirits and ministers of God, who, ac- cording to Christian doctrine attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite , are assigned to three hierarchies and nine choruses or orders.

These terms were used in the Middle Ages to in- dicate, respectively, the following parts of knowledge, grouped as follows: In contrasto alia vertiginosa rapidita del primo mobile sta in sua quiete 5 fermo 1' empireo, il cielo della teologia, ove e Dio, con attorno i nove ordini delle tre gerarchie: Questo e il bene. Lucifero, il male, relegato nel centre della terra, e per ogni parte egual- mente lontano da quella vita, da quella luce, da quell' amore, che egh ne vede ne sente ne partecipa.

Tale e il sacro poema di Dante. E come avanza di 15 gran lunga le altre opere del poeta e del secolo, cosi ne tiene pur sempre certe proprieta che 1' eta nostra non tiene. Nella Vita nuova le apparizioni e gU atti di Beatrice sono tuttora intorno il numero nove: E il tre e il nove regolano tutta la visione e la poesia della Commedia.

La Trinita in mezzo i nove ordini delle tre gerarchie regge i tre regni, ciascun dei quaU distribuito per nove scompartimenti e cantato in trentatre canti a strofi di 25 tre versi, e i canti sommati insieme fanno novantanove pero che il primo dell' inferno non e che prologo a tutti. Astronomical term used to indicate the ninth heaven. La quale e popolare. Tutta popolare e la primordiale materia fan- tastica della Conmiedia. La vita futura, di cui questa presente e a pena una falsa adombrazione e puo meglio essere una pia preparazione, era stata il sommo pen- 15 siero, tutto il pensiero, del popolo del medio evo, anzi di tutto il popolo cristiano da dodici secoli.

Dante fu la voce di dodici secoli cristiani, che davanti alle visioni intravedute nelle allucinazioni di lor mescolate memorie ed origini, elleniche, italiche, semitiche, drui- 20 diche, odiniche, rimasti erano muti e allibiti di terrore e d' ignoranza.

A kind of poetry of the troubadours of Pro- vence imitated in Italy. The theory is exposed in the work De vulgari eloquentia. I lineamenti del viso attestano in lui il tipo etrusco, quel tipo s che dura ostinato per tutta Toscana mescolandosi al romano e sopraffacendolo. Di sangue romano vanta- vasi egli; e il presentarsi della sua famiglia, come fioren- tina vecchia, senza titoli di nobilta castellana e scnza nomi fino a certo tempo d' altra lingua, fa credibile una lo continuita dai coloni conservatisi in citta e regionc men frequente d' affluenze germaniche.

Indi la profondita della sua visione nella sinccrita, 25 la intensita della rappresentazione nella lucidezza, la sicurta del cogliere il punto esscnzialc nella rassomi- glianza fantastica, il tono interiore nell' imaginazion passionata, il senso musicale nel pensiero creatore.

There is no sufficient uutlionty, however, for such construction. Tale nel crepuscolo estremo del medio evo o nel crepuscolo mattutino del Rinascimento esce Dante Allighieri, primo poeta personale, e gia potentissimo, 20 come piu verun altro.

E a pena uscito ricongiunge la dottrina all' arte e 1' arte al sentimento, e 1' arte antica nel sentimento suo e popolare rinfresca e tramandavital- mente nuova. E tutto quello ch' e piii eccelso e nobile e umano nella poesia delle genti e in lui; ma egli ha 25 certi suoi tocchi che nessuno ebbe prima ne ha poi avuto. Cio che noi facciamo ora, cio che da cotesta lapide si commemora, e piii che una festa, e piii che un fatto.

Noi celebriamo, o fratelli, il natale della patria. In the first case the reference is to the feast in honor of the goddess Athena Minerva.

In Olympia the people of Greece gathered every four years to celebrate the Olympian games. Later, at the close of the Republic, such feasts were converted into Roman celebrations. At Athens, Herodotus read publicly his history of the war between the Greeks and the Persians. The University of Bologna was from the very begin- ning deservedly famous for its studies in jurisprudence. There was born the his- torian Carlo Sigonio and in the province of Modena the great Ludovico Antonio Muratori E allc venienti aprirebbe le braccia Reggio animosa e leg- giadra, questa figlia del console M.

I volghi affollantisi intorno ai baccani e 15 agli scandali, diro cosi, official! Tanto piii siano grazie a te, o nobile Reggio, che neir oblio d' Italia commemori come nella sala di questo palazzo cU citta, or son cent' anni, il 7 gennaio del , fu decretato nazionale lo stcndardo dei tre colori.

Risuonano ancora nell' austerita della storia 25 ' Epica Fenara. Both Ariosto and Tasso lived at the court of the duke of Ferrara. Probably on account of the fabled Phaeton whom Zeus hurled into the river Po. The lines are qu ;ted from his poem La Mascheroniana. Sapranno i popoli di Modena di Ferrara di Bologna qual sia il popolo di Reggio, giusto, energico, generoso; e si animeranno ad emularvi nella carriera della gloria e della virtu.

L' epoca della nostra Re- pubblica ebbe il principio fra queste mura; e quest' 10 epoca luminosa sara uno de' piii bei momenti della citta di Reggio. II presidente del Congresso Cispadano dicea vero.

Quale spirito di Dio scese dunque in cotesta sala a illuminare le menti, a rivelare tutta insieme la visione 1 Congresso Cispadano, i. Cispa- dano, from cis, on this side right , and padanus, from Padus, Po.

Like the Greek goddess Hestia the Roman Vesta pre- sided over the public and private hearths. Caius Sempronius Gracchus B. The right of Roman citizenship was later given by Julius Cffisar to the population of Transalpine Gaul. Where the emperor Frederick Barbarossa was defeated in by the united forces of the communes of Lombardy Lombardian League.

Montechiarugolo is a village near Par- ma. There, in a detachment of Austrian soldiers was taken prisoner by a body of volunteers from Reggio. Gavinana, in Tuscany, is the place where the patriot Francesco Ferruccio was defeated and killed 1.

Non rampare di aquile e leoni, non sormontare di belve rapaci, nel lo santo vessiilo; ma i colori della nostra primavera e del nostro paese, dal Cenisio all' Etna; le nevi delle alpi, r aprile delle valli, le fiamme dei vulcani, E subito quel colori parlarono alle anime generose e gentili, con le ispirazioni e gli effetti delle virtu onde la patria sta 15 e si augusta: Noi che 1' adorammo ascendente in Campidoglio, 25 noi negli anni della fanciullezza avevamo imparato ad amarla e ad aspettarla dai grandi cuori degli avi e dei padri che ci narravano le cose oscure ed alte preparate, tentate, patite, su le quali tu splendevi in idea, piii che ' The allusion is very likely to a popular song that begins with the lines: Ora la genera- zione che sta per isparire dal combattuto e trionfato campo del Risorgimento, la generazione che fece lo r Unita, te, o sacro segno di gloria, o bandiera di Mazzini di Garibaldi di Vittorio Emanuele, te com- mette alia generazione che 1' unita deve compiere, che dee coronare d' idee e di forza la patria risorta.

Se una favilla vi resti ancora nel sangiie dei vostri padri del Quarantotto e 25 del Sessanta, non vi pare che su i monumenti della gloria vetusta questo vessillo della patria esulti piu 1 The reference is to the revolutionary movement of Later in this page mention is made also of the revolutionary outbreaks of 18G0. O giovani, T Italia non puo e non vuole es- sere I'impero di Roma, se bene I'eta della violenza non e finita pe'validi: Ma ne anche ha da essere la nazione lo cortigiana del Rinascimento, alia merce di tutti: The glorious revolution of the citizens of Milan in which lasted five days.

The people then succeeded in driving the Aus- trians ficm the city. It must be said that vic- tory at San Martino was hastened by the decisive victory of the allied French army at Solferino. One of the hills of Rome. There Garibaldi tried in vain to de- fend Rome against the French in The regular Italian army entered Rome, Sept. Tornate, o giovani, alia scienza e alia conscienza de' padri e riponetevi in cuore quelle che fu 11 sentimento il voto il proposito di quel vecchi grand!

L' Italia avanti tutto! L' Italia sopra tutto! In Italian poetry a verse is a rhythmic line made up of a fixed number of syllables, stressed and unstressed. By tonic accent is meant the stress placed upon the most strongly pronounced syllable of a word, and, according to the position of such accent, words themselves are divided into three classes: Piane are called such words as have the ac- cent upon the penultimate syllable, as mare; sdruc- ciole, such as have it upon the antepenultimate, as nohile; tronche, such as have it upon the last syllable, as cittd.

There are also words with the accent upon the fourth and even the fifth syllable from the last, but they are very rare. By rhythmic accent is meant the special emphasis given to certain tonic ac- cents in a fine so as to obtain a certain division of time. From the position of the rhythmic accents de- pends altogether the harmony of verse. For rhythmic necessity, the tonic accent of some words may be displaced, as from umile, umilc; oceano, ocedno; iencbre, ienebre, etc.

A verse may be piano, sdrucciolo or tronco ac- cording as it ends with a piana, sdrucciola or tronca. But since a verse must always be considered piano, as far as the number of syllables is concerned, it follows that all syllables after the last one stressed count as one, and when the verse is tronco a syllable must be supplied after the last accent. Thus the following lines are settenari lines of seven syllables , although the second contains eight syllables and the third only six: Orba di tanto spiro Cosi percossa attonita La terra al nunzio sta Manzoni V.

In counting the syllables of a verse syneresis, dieresis and elision must be taken into account. Syneresis is the coalescence of two consecutive vowels. Purpurea veste di ceruleo lembo Petrarca 2. Sparse per la funere-a campagna Foscolo Note 1.

The dieresis occurs almost invariably between two vowels of which the first is either o, e, or a and the second is accented. E cominciommi a dir soave e plana Dante Te beata gridai per le felici Foscolo Or da piiura, or da vergogna offese Petrarca Note 2.

The dieresis is obligatory at the end of a hnc be- tween two vowels of which the first is stressed. Elision is the contraction of two syllables into one when of two consecutive words in a verse the first ends and the next begins with a vowel. Plaudono i monti al carme e i boschi e I'acque Carducci Note. When the first of two consecutive words ends with a stressed vowel, eUsion does not take place.

Pero pur va ed in andando ascolta Dante Remark. The line Plaudono i monti al carme e i boschi e 1' acque shows that elision takes place also in the case of three consecutive vowels. It must be borne in mind, however, that elision may mean con- traction or fusion of vowels only as far as the counting of syllables is concerned.

In reading, the sound of each vowel cannot be wholly obliterated. In this case elision simply means that the length of time otherwise necessary to pronounce distinctly two or three con- secutive vowels must be reduced to one-half or one- third respectively.

According to the number of syllables, verses are named as follows: Of these, the first four called versi hrevi need have but one rhythmic accent upon the last tonic syllable. The ottonario, novenario, decasillabo and en- decasillabo, known as versi lunghi, may be considered as formed by the fusion of two versi brevi. They have at least two rhythmic accents, one upon the last tonic syllable of the verse, the other upon the tonic imme- diately preceding the point of fusion of the two versi brevi.

The following are examples of versi lunghi: In verses like this, having the rhythmic accent upon the fifth and eight syllable, there is usually a third accent upon the second syllable.

The sonnet is usually written in endecasillabi but shorter lines are sometimes used see Visione. According to the order of rhymes we may have various schemes.

Of these, only the follow- ing are illustrated in the selections given. Volgono al lido, omai perduto, in tanto s Le memorie la faccia lacrimosa; E vinte le speranze in faticosa Vista s' abbatton sovra il remo infranto. Ma dritto su la poppa il genio mio Guarda il cielo ed il mare, e canta forte lo De' venti e de le antenne al cigolio: Voghiam, voghiamo, o disperate scorte, Al nubiloso porto de 1' obllo, A la scogliera bianca de la morte.

Metre — Third scheme. Passa la nave mia colma d' obUo Per aspro mar. Passa la nave mia con vele nero, Con vele nere pc '1 selvaggio maro. Ei t' esorta e ti punge, e tu co '1 lento Giro de' pazienti occhi rispondi. Da la larga narice umida e nera lo Fuma il tuo spirto, e come un inno lieto II mugghio ne '1 sereno aer si perde; E de '1 grave occhio glauco entro V austera Dolcezza si rispecchia ampio e quieto II divino de '1 pian silenzio verde. Metre — Second scheme.

Metre — First scheme. Sacred to the ancients because ofifered in sacrifice; for the poet it is the symbol of labor. The marshes extending along the seashore between Pisa and Civitavecchia, not far from Rome.

For there the poet was born, and his lion-like nature and his disdainful lyre may be a reflection of the rugged aspect of his native country. Oh, quel che amai, quel che sognai, fu in vano s E sempre corsi, e mai non giunsi il fine; E dimani cadro. Ma di lontano Pace dicono a '1 cuor le tue colline Con le nebbie sfumanti e il vcrde piano Ridente ne le pioggie mattutine.

Apriva 1' anima pensosa 1' ale Bianche de' sogni verso un' idea. Each line is formed of two quinari coupled together. Notice that the first qidnario of lines 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14 is sdrucciolo.

Similarly Petrarch in a sonnet A Valchiuaa: Ben riconosco in voi 1' usate fomne. IS Tu fior de la mia pianta Percossa e inaridita, Tu de r inutil vita Estremo unico fior, Sei ne la terra fredda, 2o Sei ne la terra negra; Ne il sol pill ti rallegra Ne ti risveglia amor. Metre — The poem is written in settenari arranged in quartine having the following distribution of rhymes: Gira su' ceppi accesi Lo spiedo scoppiettando: Metre — See Pianto Antico.

Imitation op Latin Metres. In the fifteenth century there was an attempt in Italy to imitate Latin metres. The quantita- tive system was first introduced and verses were written without consideration for word-accent.

It was altogether a failure, how- ever. Later on it was observed that Latin verse read with re- gard to tonic accent, and not with regard to arsis and thesis, gave the harmony of Itahan verse. Then the vast preponderance of 1 The poet sketches in this poem the usual and typical Italian scenes of late vintage time. Martin's day falls on Nov. To Car- ducci is due the honor of having fixed with laws this form of poetry, that he called Barbara, and of which he is the highest exponent.

The two Latin alcaics are rendered in Italian by two decasillabi made up of one quinario piano and one quinario sdrucciolo. The third Latin verse, a trochaic dimeter, is rendered with a novenario, and the fourth, composed of two dactyls and a trochaic dipody, with a decasillabo. The latter may be formed in the following ways: By coupling two quinari. IL By using a decasillabo with rhythmic accents on the third, sixth and ninth syllable.

By a verse made up of a quinario sdrucciolo and a quadernario piano. By a verse which corresponds to an endecasil- labo shortened of its first syllable. In this poem, the fourth line of each stanza follows scheme I. The river Adige divides Verona into two sections which are connected by several large bridges. Verona became the rcaidcnco of Theodoric after he defeated Odoacer tliorc in The barbarians brought into Italy by Odoacer in were called Heruli.

Thcodoinir, father of Theodoric, after Attila's death freed his nation from the yoke of the Huns and became the head of the Amal dynasty, which for two centuries ruled over the Ostrogoths. That is, sacred to Odin, who in the Scandinavr'an mythology is the chief of the gods.

The mercy of the conquerors was implored in the name of religion by the unarmed descendants of the Romans. Italy w;us united in In this poem the fourth line may follow any one of the schemes. Of all the poets who have written Napoleonic odes Hugo, Byron, Manzoni, Lamartine, Verlaine Carducci is perhaps the one who has shown most poetically the Nemesis of the Bonaparte family.

That is, the glory and empire which the prince hoped to at- tain; fantasmi, because unattained. The young duke of Reichstadt, son of Napoleon I, who was held practically as a prisoner by his maternal grandfather at the court of Austria, and there brought perhaps to a premature death for reasons of state largely in the manner suggested by the poet.

Marie Louise, however, was able to see her dying son. Such was not to be the fate reserved to the son, es- pecially in view of the father's uncontrasted supremacy in Evrope at the time of the Crimean war.

Because with the fall of Sebastopol the Crimean war came practically to an end. The prince was born in , at the time when the former splendor of the Bonaparte seemed to be permanently restored and at a time most ominous for the future. The Vendome Column, erected by Napoleon I in At the time, really, to the oppressed peoples of Europe and especially to the Italians, the Napoleonic dynasty appeared as a beacon of hope.

The reference is to the punishment that sooner or later is meted out to whomsoever tries to further his private interest through usurpation. The closing lines of a short study by Carducci Vol. Fu la giustizia; la quale altro non e che 1' armonia dei fatti umani e cho nei fatti umani svolgendosi annuUa e vendica prima o poi le offese recate al diritto. Noi che erediamo al diritto, alia giustizia, alia liberta, amiamo credere aneora che Lipsia e Waterloo facessero la vendetta del 18 brumaio, e che il regno e la caduta ingloriosa del nepote fossero debita espiazione non pure al 2 diceinbre, ma alia usurpazione, al dispoti.

Non s' inganna impunemente il genere umano n6 coi plebisciti ni colle vittorie. Poetic for tossico, poison. Where Napoleon I was born. Letizia is but the Latin Icetitia, joy. From a note by Carducci. It seems, however, that expressions occur in Laplace's private letters inconsistent with the atheistical opinions he is commonly believed to have held.

The mother of Napoleon I never shared in the splendors of her son, but lived a disconsolate life till she died in Rome in Fatale is here u. Fatale is similarly used by Manzoni in II cinque maggio.

Da gli occhi d' aquila. The reference is to the piercing eagle eyes of Napoleon L Cf. Dante, Inferno, IV, , speaking of Caesar: Cesare armato con occhi grifagni.

Boschi di lauro frondeggiano dietro spirando effluvi e murmuri ne la sera. Davanti, larga, nitida, Candida splende la luna: The fourth hne of each stanza is made up of a quinario sdrucciolo and a quadernario piano. Niobe personifies in mythology maternal grief endured with dignity. Niobe had all her sons killed before her eyes. The episode is related by Ovid Metamorphoses, VI, et seq. The great Italian patriot gathered a thousand of his former volunteers at Quarto, a small village near Genoa.

Seizing two vessels, the Piemonte and the Lombardo, they set sail for Sicily on the night of May 5, The government of Piedmont was secretly in sympathy with the expedition. This word may have been suggested here by a recollection of that line in Dante Puryatorio, VI, 78 , where Italy is bitterly apostrophized as donna.

Italy had for centuries been deprived of a national ruler. Military or traveling cloak Sp. Garibaldi had previously fought for the cause of liberty in.

The volunteers could not assemble in a body since they were to arouse no suspicion. S Una corona di luce olimpica cinse i fastigi bianchi in quel vespero del cinque di maggio, Vittoria fu il sacrificio, o poesia.

E tu ridevi, stella di Venere, lo stella d' Italia, stella di Cesare: Italian patriot who organized before Garibaldi an unsuccesa- ful expedition to Southern Italy and started from Genoa on June 25, Byron, the author of Childe Harold, left Genoa on board the Hercules with other adventurers bound for Greece, where he died at Missolonghi, April 19, The family of Julius Csesar claimed its origin from Venus.

Pregnant with future events. Flebile, acuta, stridula fischia 5 la vaporiera da presso. Plumbeo il cielo e 11 mattino d' autumao come un grande fantasma n' e intorno. Dove e a che move qucsta, che affrettasi a 'carri foschi, rawolta e tacita 10 gente?

In this poem the fourth line of each stanza follows scheme II. The double line of lights gives the poet the imprcs- Bion as if they were running after one another. Similarly in Fuori alia Certosa di Bologna: And also in the ode Davanti S. Guido, speaking of two rows of cypresses: E fuggiano e pareano un corteo nero Che brontolando in fretta in fretta va. And again in the poem Su I'Adda: Le mura dirutc di Lodi fuggono arrampicandosi nere al declivio verde e al docile colle.

The image is certainly striking but as yawning conveys the idea of drowsiness, so sbadigliando, here, seems to conipletc and strengthen the idea of the preceding accidtosi. E gli sportelli sbattuti al chiudere paion oltraggi: Adjective coined by Carducci.

The word generally means the load carried by animals. Fremea la vita ncl tepid' aere, 5 fremca 1' estate quando mi arrisero; e il giovine sole di giugno si piacea di baciar luminoso in tra i riflessi del crin castanei la molle guancia; come mi' aureola 10 piu belli del sole i miei sogni ricingean la persona gentile. Oh qual caduta di foglie, gelida, continua, muta, greve, su 1' anima! Mescete in vetta al luminoso colle, 10 mescete, amici, il biondo vino, e il sole vi si rifranga: A me tra '1 verso che pensoso vola venga 1' allegra coppa ed il soave fior de la rosa che fugace il verno 20 consola e muore.

Metre — This is a sapphic ode. The first three lines of the Latin sapphic are rendered in Italian with three endecasillahi, and the Latin adonius with a quinario. In the neighborhood of Rome. A young woman beloved by Horace Od. Here, a fictj- j tious name of a lady. Morremo; e sempre faticosa intorno s de 1' almo sole volgera la terra, mille sprizzando ad ogni istante vite come scintille; vite in cui nuovi fremeranno amori, vite che a pugne nuove fremeranno, lo e a nuovi numi canteranno gl' inni de r avvenire.

E voi non nati, a le cui man' la face verra che scorse da le nostre, e voi disparirete, radiose schiere, 15 ne r infinito. Addio, tu madrc del pcnsier mio breve, tcrraj e de 1' alma fuggitiva! A powerful pootioal vision of the scicntifio concep- tion of tlie logmdation of the sun's energy.

See Lecontc do Lisle, Lc dernier dieu in Poin. Da Cipri avanzando veleggia La nave crociata latina. Metre — This poem is written in novenari.

Each stanza is composed of two quartine, each quartina hav- ing an independent order of rhymes i. A B A B C D C D with the exception of the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, and last stanza in which the order of rhymes is as follows: In form, the poet has imitated the metre of the romance.

For a comprehensive view of the story of Rudel, the reader is referred to a masterly study by Carducci in Studi Saggi e Discorsi. The following translation by Carducci from a Provencal manuscript of the thirteenth century will throw, it is hoped, sufficient light on the poem: Innamorossi della contessa di Tripoli senza vederla, per lo gran bene e la gran cortesia ch' egli sent!

E per volonta di vederla si crocio, e misesi in mare per andare a vederla. E allora nella nave lo prese una grande malattia, si che quelli che erano con lui pensarono ch' ei sarebbe morto nella nave; ma tanto fecero che lo condussero a Tripoli in un albergo per morto.

E fu fatto assapere alia contessa; ed ella venne a lui al suo letto, e preselo entro le sue braccia. E quando egli seppe ch' era la contessa, si ricovro il vedere, 1' udire e lo spirare; e lodo Iddio e il ringrazio che gli aveva la vita sostenuta tanto ch' ei 1' avesse vista.

E in questo mori tra le braccia della contessa. Ed ella lo fee? In vista a la spiaggia asiana 5 Risuona la nota canzone: Messaggio vengo io del signore Di Blaia, Giaufredo Rudel.

Blaye, a town north of Bordeaux whence Rudcl started on his journey. In the Asiatic provinces of Syria; the city was taken from the Mohammedans by the Crusaders in Vinors do terra loinRdana, Per vos totz lo cors mi dol. Le son du cor s'aJJUye vers lea bois. Ei viene e si muor.

Vi saluta, j Signora, il poeta fedel. S La dama guardo lo scudiero 1 A lungo, pensosa in sembianti: Poi surse, adombro d' un vel nero La faccia con gli occhi stellanti: II primo al fedele rechiamo ' E r ultimo motto d' amore. Deh fa che a la dolce sua mano ; 2o Commetta 1' estremo respir! La favola breve e finita, II vero immortale e 1' amor. In dcr Liebe nur ist Wahrheit, Und dich licb' ich, ewig Schone. Vi aspetto al novissimo bando.

Stress upon the last syllable is, of course, employed and in accordance with Carducci's usage. Often used as a noun. OJUu used as a noutt.

OJten used as a noun. Antiochia, a province in Asia. Appennino and Appennini, Aj - peniiines. Often used 06 a noun. Cenisio, the Mont-Cenis in the Alps, cento, hundred, centro, center, ceppo, block, log. Cipri, the island of Cyprus. Dio, God; pet — , in the name of heaven. Emilia, a territorial division of Italy in which Bologn,a is located. There the theo- logians placed the seat uf God. Gil estensi, the ducal family of Este. Etna, the volcano in Sicily.

Fiesole, a suburb of Florence. Germania, Germany, germanico, German, germe, m. Literally, the term applies to each of the three divisions of the seventh circle of Dante's "Inferno. Libano, Lebanon a chain of mountains along the seacoast of Syria. Marsiglia, Marseilles French city on the Mediterranean. Mincio, Mincius a river in Lomhardy crossing the coun- try where Virgil was born. Used also re- fiexively. Past part, of morire. Often used instead of a relative pronoun. Often used for em- phasis.

Often redundant or used for emphasis. Used also as a noun, chmbing. Often used as a noun, fermentation. Rinascimento, Renaissance rinfrescare, to refresh. Past part, of scrivere. Sparse, past part, of spargere. Past part, of 6ssere. Tavola, — rotonda, the poems of the Round Table, tavola, table; picture, te, you, to you.

Tirreno, Tyrrhene sea a part of the Mediterranean sea along the western coast of Italy. Literally, the word has reference to the revival of classical learning during the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- turies. Used also as a noun. Often used instead of essere to form the passsive construction. Catlicrine, Catherinette ct Catarlna, Boards,,. Game of tlie Caesars In a box 1. Le Gendre de M. How to Judge a Horse — 1. Una Notte Bizzarra Benito, El Voto, Fucgo h Bordo French Verbs at a Glance Fables Choisies de la Fontaine Boards,.

Der Praktische Deutsche — 1. Le Testament de C6sar Girodot Langue Fraugaise, La 2me parlie — 1. Le Petit Tambour see Bourn Bourn. STodcrn Biding and Horse Educa- tion — 2. Beck's French Verb Form Maupassant's Contes et Nouvelles Simple Grammaire Francaise — l. Rostand's Cyrano dc Bcrgcrac. En Voyage foi toun? Common Dirticultics in Readins French — 1. B, I'oquelin de Mulif: Chatcaubriand'si Atala, with Notes and Vocabulary C. Progi'essive Pronouncing French Reader Bds,. La Lingua Italiana — 1.

French Verb Form Boards,. D, Alarcon's El Final de Norma 75 1. Manual of French Verbs —. Well printed and have notes in English by competent authorities.

Diez de la Cor- tina, B. Glance at the Difficulties of German Grammar —. Salvptte et Bemadou, Dn Teneur de Livres. Drillmaster in German — 1. Constructive Process for Learning German — 1. M DuCroquet's French Verbs —. Lectures et Conversations, Boards,. An Elementary French Grammar.. Brief Italian Grammar with Exercises —.

Claretie's La Frontifcre L'Ami Fntz Comddie a. Fra le Corde di im Contrabasso Fables Choisies Beck Boards,. Game nf Mythology In a Box. Chateaubriand's Les Avcntures du Demiti Abencerage C0 — — GAY. Alexandre's Catherine, Catherinette et Catarina, Boards,.

Men Livrede Petitc-s Histoirea 1. La Duchesse Couturifero La Pluie et le Beau Temps About's Le Buste French Verb Drill Tablet Form,.

Cabana's El Desddn Con el Desdfe Vent d'Ouest and La Soupifere Lessons in Botany — 1. Quatre-Vingt-Treize Half Leather, 3. Shakespeare Calendar PeriJetual 1. Bohemian Legends and Other Poems 50 1. Le Voyage de M. Sandcan's La Roche aux Mouettes. Antour d'un Berccau French Grammar Collet Boards,. Contes de Balzac — 1. ITeneros' La Indepeiidencia Sardou's Le Pcrle Noire Iklp for tlie SlUfly of French —.

Russell's Horace's Art of Poeti-y —. Le Verbe en quatre tableaux synnptique. Lo Voyage de M. Estebanez's Un Drama Nuevo L'Auberge and other stories including: Drill in French Pronunciation and Reading Boards,. Les Deux Souuu W Le Bourgeois Geiitilliomme Although Joyce was always short of money, he spent freely. He was a heavy drinker and notoriously difficult. Like Proust, he was not in good health: And like Proust, he thought everything in the world existed only to fill the pages of a book.

Then he asked him if he liked truffles, and Joyce replied that he did. After that the conversation petered out.

Joyce was tormented by migraines and a burning sensation in his eyes, while Proust grumbled about his stomach ache. This is, more or less, all there is to say about the meeting. A meeting that soon became legend, but which culminated in an exchange of wretched remarks about truffles and stomach ache. There are two photographs showing Anton Chekhov and Leo Tolstoy together at Gaspra, where the author of War and Peace had moved in , to recuperate from a succession of illnesses in the warm sun of Crimea.

Chekhov, who lived nearby in Yalta, heard Tolstoy was there and went to visit him, even though his own state of health was very precarious. Chekhov always became anxious before a meeting with Tolstoy: You can see it in the photographs: Chekhov is dressed in a dark suit and matching hat, a white shirt and tie and a pince-nez. Sitting hunched, with his legs tightly crossed and his hands clasped around his knee, he looks as though he wants to take up the least space possible.

Tolstoy, on the other hand, looks very relaxed: In the other photograph, Tolstoy is sitting at a little table, on the same terrace. He appears almost contrite. During this meeting, Tolstoy spoke a good deal, as usual, addressing a wide range of subjects.

When the moment came for them to part he asked his friend to give him a farewell kiss. As Chekhov leaned forwards to embrace him, Tolstoy whispered earnestly in his ear: Shakespeare was a terrible writer, but your plays are worse than his. And to where can I follow your characters? Yet he continued to regard the lack of action in such plays as an unforgivable defect.

Chekhov, on the other hand, worshipped Tolstoy like a god. On 11 December , he wrote in a letter to his publisher, Alexei Suvorin: Actually, what he admired most about Tolstoy was the regal contempt he showed towards all writers. The meeting was far from disappointing. Tolstoy, in a letter to his son a few months later, described Chekhov as a gifted man with a kind heart.

He described in a letter how he had felt at ease, as though in his own home, and had conversed freely with Lev Nikolayevich. Chekhov had been taken there as an emergency after his first serious pulmonary haemorrhage, which had happened over dinner in a restaurant. Diagnosed with advanced tuberculosis, he was confined to bed and a regime of silence for several days. Only his closest relatives were allowed to visit him and then only for a short time.

But when Tolstoy arrived, wrapped in his enormous bearskin coat, no one had the courage to turn him away. However, sentenced to silence, he was unable to explain himself better, though he later remarked in a letter to a friend: These two had in common a private supernatural experience that had marked both their lives: For years, despite the most favourable circumstances for a perfect meeting, every plan to bring them together comes to nothing, foiled by a series of hitches, misunderstandings and unexpected events.

But at last the death of one the two—the woman, who had heart disease—achieves what had never proved possible in life. One of the most interesting aspects of the meetings between Chekhov and Tolstoy is that communication between them was almost always indirect, in letters or diary entries, and especially through other people.

They met rarely and almost always in the presence of others: But did they ever truly meet? Yet incomprehension pervaded their meetings. Their paths led in opposite directions. Perhaps, without wanting to admit it, they felt threatened by each other.

Chekhov, for his part, never relinquished his Oedipal attitude towards Tolstoy. He never forgave the conservatism of his artistic judgements nor did he share his moral condemnation of modern society. And yet he thought him the greatest of all.

Some time after the disastrous dinner at the Hotel Majestic, James Joyce said he regretted the missed opportunity, even though his relationship with Proust remained ambivalent. But when Proust died, on 18 November , six months after the meeting at the Majestic, Joyce went to his funeral. Violet e Sidney Schiff erano una mondanissima coppia di ricchi, colti e cosmopoliti inglesi che viveva tra Londra e Parigi.

Lui era un traduttore e uno scrittore che usava lo pseudonimo di Stephen Hudson, ma era soprattutto un mecenate che conosceva i più grandi artisti e talenti del modernismo. Il 18 maggio i due organizzarono quella che doveva restare nella memoria storica come la cena del secolo, una serata dove far incontrare i due più grandi romanzieri del Novecento: Marcel Proust e James Joyce. Gli Schiff erano amici e ammiratori fanatici di Proust. Proust era molto malato, faceva abuso di svariate droghe e viveva per la sua opera: Seppure sempre a corto di denaro, lo scrittore spendeva senza ritegno, era un forte bevitore e aveva un carattere notoriamente difficile.

Anche lui, come Proust, non stava bene in salute: Si chiuse nel suo abituale silenzio e ogni tanto sbuffava o sonnecchiava. Gli Schiff lo accolsero con tutti gli onori e lo fecero sedere accanto a Joyce, come previsto.

Proust, per rompere il ghiaccio, chiese a Joyce se conoscesse un certo duca, e Joyce rispose di secco di no. Infine entrambi si lamentarono dei loro malanni: Un incontro che divenne presto leggenda, ma che si concluse con un misero scambio di battute sui tartufi e sul mal di stomaco. Lo si capisce anche guardando le foto: In abito scuro, camicia bianca e cravatta, cappello intonato al vestito e pince nez , se ne sta curvo, con le gambe rigidamente accavallate e le mani intrecciate al ginocchio, quasi come se volesse occupare il minor spazio possibile.

nue fille escort girl noisy le grand

Nue fille escort girl noisy le grand -

The vocabulary is meant to be complete except for ill IV PREFACE the omission of ronde porno wannonce la courneuve commonest forms of irregular verbs such as essere and avere and other words usually francaise anal escort cher in the grammars. At Athens, Herodotus read publicly his history of the war between the Greeks and the Persians. Quatre-Vingt-Treize Half Leather, 3. Innamorossi della contessa di Tripoli senza vederla, per lo gran bene e la gran cortesia ch' egli sent! Metre — This is a sapphic ode. Sacred to the ancients because ofifered in sacrifice; for the poet it is the symbol of labor. OO Le tieeond Livre des Eufauts —. By coupling two quinari. Well printed and have notes in English by competent authorities. Ma poi egh cercava e trovava per se e apriva altrui un refugio nell' arte. Infine entrambi si lamentarono dei loro malanni:

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