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Ordinato sacerdote a Scutari il Anton Harapi, rinunciatario per essere stato chiamato a far parte della Reggenza. Dal Ministro Provinciale fino alla fucilazione. Arrestato e imprigionato a Scutari il Çiprijan Nikaj, il vescovo Mons.

Frano Gjini e ad altri. Évêque et martyr en Albanie. Beato Francesco Gjini Vescovo e martire. Scutari, Albania, 20 settembre — 11 marzo Inseriti tutti e tre nel gruppo dei 38 martiri uccisi in Albania durante il regime comunista, sono stati beatificati a Scutari il 5 novembre Frano Gjini nacque a Scutari in Albania il 20 settembre Ordinato sacerdote, fu parroco a Laç, Vlora e Durazzo, città dove venne consacrato vescovo.

I montanari non accettavano le loro leggi, ma qualcuno scese a patti con i capi politici. Tuttavia, sul punto di rientrare, si vide impedito dal governo, in un esilio di fatto.

Monsignor Gjini, quindi, divenne suo sostituto e dovette partire per Scutari. Opposto al regime, per il bene del suo gregge. Non molto tempo dopo, venne convocato da Enver Hoxha in persona. Il capo di Stato voleva chiedergli di prendere il comando di una Chiesa nazionale, separata da Roma, proprio come aveva o avrebbe domandato ad altri due vescovi, i monsignori Gaspër Thaçi e Vinçenc Prennushi, i quali si mostrarono contrari. Anche monsignor Gjini fu dello stesso parere: Relegato in una cella di un metro quadrato di ampiezza, incatenato mani e piedi, ne veniva tratto fuori solo per venire torturato.

Ad esempio, veniva buttato in una vasca di acqua gelata, oppure subiva scosse elettriche, o ancora gli venivano messi granelli di sale su ferite appena aperte, o punte di legno sotto le unghie. I lindur në Shkodër, më U shugurua meshtar më Në vitin u emërua Vikar i Përgjithshëm i Arqidioqezës së Durrësit.

U shugurua Ipeshkëv më U arrestua në Shkodër më Fu ordinato sacerdote il Fu consacrato vescovo il Alessandro di Orosh in Mirdita. Nigris che, partito per Roma alla fine di marzo del , il regime non fece rientrare più in Albania.

Fu arrestato a Scutari il Son histoire a sans aucun doute quelques fondements historiques, même si elle a été grandement améliorée par des légendes.

Roi de Cornouailles, il mena tout d'abord une vie déréglée. Puis il se retira dans le Pays de Galles et en Irlande pour faire pénitence. Il se rendit enfin en Écosse pour en être le missionnaire et c'est là qu'il fut tué par des pirates.

Saint Constantin de Cornouailles, Higougène martyr ou Notre Père saint Constantin fut, selon une tradition, le neveu du célèbre roi Arthur, à qui ce dernier légua sa couronne, quand il fut mortellement blessé. Selon une autre tradition, il fut un roi de Cornouailles, qui abandonna son royaume et devint moine dans la cellule de Saint David. Puis, partant pour un autre pays, il y construisit un monastère. Les traditions les plus importantes le concernant viennent d'Écosse.

Mais elle mourut, et lui, se lamentant sur sa mort et refusant d'être consolé, transmis son royaume à son fils, et dit adieu à tous, quitta son royaume et passa en Irlande. Arrivant à un certain monastère, pendant sept ans, il travailla humblement transportant du grain au moulin du monastère et depuis celui-ci.

Un jour, il était assis dans le moulin et il se dit: Peu de temps après, il quitta le monastère et se rendit auprès de saint Columba, et après cela, il fut envoyé par saint Kentigern, évêque de Glasgow, prêcher la Parole de Dieu dans le Galloway, dans le sud-ouest de l'Ecosse.

Là, il fut élu higoumène d'un monastère, où il vécut une vie sainte jusqu'à la vieillesse. Selon une autre tradition, il fonda un monastère à Govan sur la Clyde. Puis il alla prêcher la parole de Dieu dans tout le pays, et arriva finalement à l'île de Kintyre. Là, quelques hommes mauvais le suivirent, et, s'approchant de son assistant, ils lui coupèrent la main.

Le saint le guérit immédiatement en le touchant. Puis ces hommes vils firent pleuvoir les coups sur le saint, lui coupèrent le bras, et le laissèrent pour mort. Appelant à lui les frères, le saint les réconforta par des paroles spirituelles. Puis il s'endormit en leur présence. Selon la tradition écossaise, saint Constantin a été martyrisé, en , et selon la tradition irlandaise en Version française Claude Lopez-Ginisty.

Constantine of Scotland M AC. Died ; feast in Cornwall and Wales is March 9. King Constantine of Cornwall is reputed to have been married to the daughter of the king of Brittany and to have led a life full of vice and greed until he was led to conversion by Saint Petroc. Upon the death of his wife, he is said to have ceded his throne to his son in order to become a penitent monk at St. Mochuda Monastery at Rahan, Ireland. He performed menial tasks at the monastery, then studied for the priesthood and was ordained.

Constantine became a missionary to the Picts in Scotland under Saint Columba and then Saint Kentigern, preached in Galloway, and founded and became abbot of a monastery at Govan near the River Clyde.

In his old age, on his way to Kintyre, he was attacked by pirates who cut off his right arm, and he bled to death. He is regarded as Scotland's first martyr, although his story is often contradictory and unreliable. It is probable that the Scottish martyr is not the same person as the British king.

There are two places in Cornwall called Constantine: The church on the first site was the larger and survived as a monastery until the 11th century. HE is said to have been a British king, who, after the death of his queen, resigned the crown to his son, and became a monk in the monastery of St.

It is added that he afterwards went into North Britain, and joined St. Columba in preaching the gospel amongst the Picts, who then inhabited a great part of what is now called Scotland. He founded a monastery at Govane, near the river, Cluyd, converted all the land of Cantire to the faith of Christ, and died a martyr by the hands of infidels, towards the end of the sixth century.

He was buried in his monastery of Govane, and divers churches were erected in Scotland under his invocation. But it seems most probable that the Scottish martyr is not the same person with the British king. Colgan supposes him to have been an Irish monk who had lived in the community of St. The Lives of the Saints. Born a Cornish prince , the son of King Paternus.

After a life of vice, Constantine had a conversion experience, repented his sins, and studied the faith in Wales and Ireland.

Missionary to the Scottish Picts. Worked with Saint Columbanus. Abbot of a monastery at Govan. Two places in Cornwall are named for him.

He died in Constantine was a king of Cornwall , the son of Padeon, whose conversion probably dates from a confrontation with St. Petroc who was sheltering a stag which had taken refuge with him from Constantine 's huntsmen…. Constantine married a princess from Brittany who died shortly after the marriage and the King was so desolated that he left his kingdom and sought sanctuary, first at S. David's monastery at Menevia and then in Ireland at Rathin, made famous by St.

He arrived at Rathin unannounced and was set to work in the granary, grinding corn in a stone quern. One day he was heard by one of the monks laughing and saying to himself, "Is this really Constantine, King of Cornwall, who wore a helmet and bore a shield, working this handmill?

It is the same, and yet it is not". This conversation was reported to the abbot who took him into the community and after a while he was ordained priest. He had spent seven years at the abbey before he was recognised and by now he was quite an old man, but he desired to visit Iona and set off with the blessing of the abbot. Columba received him kindly and sent him on to Sr. Kentigern, whom he may have met when he was at Menevia. While visiting Glasgow he stayed for some time with St.

Mirren at Paisley and the two became great friends so that Constantine decided to build himself a monastery nearby at Govan by the river. It is interesting that the ruined church of St. Constantine , on the shore of the Bay that bears his name, has the parish of St Merryn adjoining it and the font in St Merryn's Church comes from St Constantine's.

Constantine had founded his monastery at Govan he still felt impelled to preach the Faith of Christ to the heathen and he went to Kintyre with a party of his monks. There, by Campbeltown Loch a party of robbers came upon him and hacked him and his one attendant to pieces. The ruins of a church at Kilchouslan are supposed to mark the spot where the first of the martyrs of Scotland was attacked and left to die, bleeding to death from a severed arm.

His brethren found him and received his blessing before he died. They took his body back to Govan and buried him in the church that has his name. His sarcophagus was discovered in and has been restored to the church which keeps his festival on March 11th.

Troparion of St Constantine Tone 5. Kontakion of St Constantine Tone 4. Our holy Father Constantine was, according to one tradition, the nephew of the famous King Arthur, to whom the latter bequeathed his crown when he was mortally wounded. According to another, he was a king of Cornwall who abandoned his kingdom and became a monk in St.

Then, leaving for another land, he built a monastery there. The fullest traditions concerning him come from Scotland. They state that he was the son of Paternus, king of Cornwall, and married the daughter of the king of Brittany. But she died, and he, grieving over her death and refusing to be comforted, delivered his kingdom to his son, and bidding farewell to all, left his kingdom and crossed over to Ireland.

Coming to a certain monastery, for seven years he worked humbly carrying grain to and from the monastery mill. One day he was sitting in the mill and said to himself; "Am I Constantine, king of Cornwall, whose head has so often worn the helmet and his body the breastplate? No, I am not. He then took him away from the mill, educated him, and raised him to the priesthood.

Soon after this, he left the monastery and went to St. Columba; and afterwards he was sent by St. There he was elected abbot of a monastery, where he lived a holy life until old age. According to another tradition, he founded a monastery at Govan on the Clyde. In his extreme old age, St. Constantine prayed God to give him a martyr's death, and he heard a voice from heaven saying that it should be as he had asked. Then he went preaching the word of God throughout the land, and came eventually to the island of Kintyre.

There some evil men followed him, and, coming up to his attendant, they cut off his hand. The saint immediately healed him with a touch. Then the evil men showered blows upon the saint, cut off his arm, and left him for dead. Calling the brethren to him, the saint comforted them with spiritual words. Then he fell asleep in their presence. Constantine was martyred, according to the Scottish tradition, in , and according to the Irish tradition in ; and his feastday is March 9 in Wales and Cornwall, March 11 in Scotland and March 18 in Ireland.

San Costantino Re e martire. Cornovaglia, circa — Kintyre, Scozia, 9 maggio Sacrilego e pluriassassino, si sarebbe separato dalla moglie, figlia del re di Bretagna Armoricana, per essere più libero. Dopo sette di vita vissuta in austerità e penitenza, studiando le scritture, fu consacrato sacerdote e invitato in Scozia sotto la direzione di San Columba, per evangelizzare le popolazioni indigene.

In Scozia, san Costantino, re, discepolo di san Colomba e martire. Costantino, nato verso il , ascese probabilmente al trono nel dopo la morte di suo padre Cado. Per tale motivo questa figura leggendaria a giudizio di alcuni potrebbe essere basata su quella storica di Costantino di Dumnonia. Costantino, apostolo della Scozia, era destinato ad essere il primo martire a spargere il proprio sangue su quella terra per la sua fede nel Vangelo che andava predicando sulle pubbliche piazze: Le sue spoglie mortali, ritrovate dai suoi discepoli, vennero traslate a Govon nella chiesa che prese a portare il suo nome.

Tuttavia non va confuso, oltre che con il celebre imperatore, anche con altri santi sovrani vissuti in seguito sempre in Gran Bretagna e comunque non censiti dalla Bibliotheca Sanctorum: Rattristato per la perdita della tua giovane sposa,. Dio ti ha chiamato a lasciare la tua solitudine. Tu nascesti per esssere re di Cornovaglia,. Cantando le tue lodi, o santo martire,. Mamilian of Palermo B AC. San Mamiliano di Palermo Vescovo e martire. Visse al tempo della dominazione vandalica in Sicilia.

Fu l'ottavo vescovo di Palermo. Venne esiliato in Africa verso il assieme ai suoi compagni cristiani. Una parte delle sue reliquie furono portate a Roma nella chiesa di S. Maria in Monticelli e, un secolo dopo, anche a Spoleto. La Diocesi di Palermo lo festeggia il 16 giugno. Di là riscattato, o dalla pietà dei fedeli o da qualche vescovo africano S.

Ebbe parecchi compagni di esilio che vissero con lui la vita eremitica, tra cui la tradizione ricorda: Il culto del santo sacerdote, presentato come Vescovo e Martire da leggende assai posteriori è intimamente connesso con la diffusione del Vangelo nell'Arcipelago toscano e nella bassa Maremma. Maria in Monticelli e parte della testa, nel , nella Cattedrale di Palermo. Nella Diocesi di Palermo è celebrato al 16 giugno, data della prima Invenzione delle Reliquie a Sovana per un errore del Mongitore.

Il avait été chargé de négocier la paix entre l'empereur et les Goths d'Alaric, à Ravenne. C'est pendant ce temps qu'ils pillèrent Rome en son absence le 24 août Mais le pontificat de saint Innocent sera surtout un affermissement de la juridiction romaine en Occident comme nous le voyons au travers des 36 lettres que nous avons de lui.

Il se sent qualifié pour dire le droit de l'Église. Les querelles relèvent des conciles provinciaux, conformément aux canons des conciles de Nicée et de Sardique. Rome intervient en dernière instance en Occident, en raison de l'antériorité de Rome sur toutes ces Églises. Pour les Églises d'Orient, il respecte l'antériorité des sièges patriarcaux mais intervient quand un arbitrage est demandé.

Avec l'Église en Afrique, il est plus nuancé. Dans le domaine doctrinal, saint Innocent n'innove pas. Il se veut le gardien d'une Église qui doit sans cesse retrouver sa pureté initiale.

Innocens naquit à Albano, près de Rome et succéda à saint Anastase 1 er voir au 19 décembre à la fin de , comme quarantième pape. Un évêque doit être consacré par plusieurs évêques. Une moniale qui quitte son monastère doit être considérée comme une épouse adultère. Un prêtre ne peut contracter le mariage. Un laïc marié appelé au sacerdoce, doit rompre la vie conjugale.

Innocens fit construire la basilique des Saints-Gervais-et-Protais. Il ordonna cinquante-quatre évêques, trente prêtres et douze diacres. Innocens 1 er - saint Innocent - mourut le 12 mars , après un pontificat de quinze ans et deux mois, et fut inhumé au cimetière Ursus Pileatus. Son successeur fut saint Zosime voir au 26 décembre. Saint Innocent I Il appuie Augustin dans sa lutte contre le pélagianisme.

Il va plus loin dans sa réponse au concile de Carthage: Il meurt le 12 mars et est enterré au cimetière de Pontien. Il est l'auteur d'une liste de livres canoniques de la Bible incluant tous les livres qui seront finalement retenus au Concile de Trente source TOB, introd.

On a des décrétales et des lettres de saint Innocent Ier, fêté le 12 mars. Comme le juste Loth, écrit Orose, la providence de Dieu, pour lui épargner la vue de la ruine du peuple Romain, le retira de Rome et le mit en sûreté dans Ravenne. Il approuva aussi qu'on jeûnât le samedi, en souvenir de la sépulture de notre Seigneur.

Il siégea quinze ans, un mois et dix jours. En quatre ordinations au mois de décembre, il créa trente prêtres, quinze diacres, et cinquante-quatre évêques pour divers lieux. On l'ensevelit au cimetière nommé Ad Ursum Pileatum. Il se sent qualifié pour dire le droit de l'Eglise. Rome intervient en dernière instance en Occident, en raison de l'antériorité de Rome sur toutes ces Eglises.

Pour les Eglises d'Orient, il respecte l'antériorité des sièges patriarcaux mais intervient quand un arbitrage est demandé. Avec l'Eglise en Afrique, il est plus nuancé. Il se veut le gardien d'une Eglise qui doit sans cesse retrouver sa pureté.

Fin février, le consul Stilicon, après avoir combattu avec succès pendant l'hiver les Vandales et autres Barbares conduits par Radagaise en Rhétie et en Norique, descend en Italie pour débloquer Milan ; Alaric abandonne le siège d'Hasta Asti où s'est réfugié Honorius, puis se rend à Pollentia sur la rivière Tanarus où il décide d'attendre les troupes romaines de Stilicon lancées à sa poursuite.

Eté ou automne, Honorius, menacé par les Wisigoths, déplace la cour impériale d'Occident de Mediolanum Milan à Ravenne. En juin, les Wisigoths d'Alaric Ier, qui ont l'intention de passer le col du Brenner pour envahir la Rhétie puis la Gaule alors dégarnies de leurs troupes, sont battus par Stilicon à bataille de Vérone ; ils sont rejetés hors d'Italie et installés comme fédérés en Illyrie. Au concile de Constantinople, la sentence de déposition portée contre Jean Chrysostome est solennellement annulée.

Après le combat du 1er janvier, Honorius interdit les combats de gladiateurs. Théophile, patriarche d'Alexandrie, est démis et excommunié par le pape. Vigilantius de Barcelone, prêtre en Lombardie, condamne le célibat du clergé. Constantin le Petit est "empereur des Gaules".

Constant, fils de Constantin le Petit, l'empereur des Gaules, est assassiné. Vandales Germains , Alains non-Germains: Installation de cloches dans les églises italiennes. Julien , 2e fils de Constantin le Petit, est "empereur des Gaules" il sera assassiné en En Gaule, arrivée des Francs. A Carthage, conciles auxquels participe Augustin relatifs au péché originel et à la nécessité de la grâce mise en cause par Pélage et son disciple Célestius.

Jovin est proclamé empereur à Mayence tué en Maxime le tyran est proclamé "empereur des Gaules" en Espagne dernier empereur des Gaules. Augustin et un grand nombre de ses collègues offrent de quitter leurs sièges en faveur des évêques donatistes qui se réuniraient à leur communion.

A Bethléem, Jérôme 2 termine la Vulgate. Jean Cassien fonde Saint-Victor de Marseille. En juin, le concile de Carthage, anathématise Pélage et Célestius. Après avoir vécu comme moine pendant 6 ans dans les montagnes, Jean fut ordonné diacre en et fait prêtre en Jean, rappelé, fut exilé à nouveau en dans le désert du Taurus où il mourut en après avoir essayé de convertir les Perses et les Goths au christianisme. Le nom de Chrysostome du grec chrysostomos: Le printemps est passé et tout est fané.

Que chacun de vous fasse de sa maison, une église! Dieu réalise toujours ses plans par des moyens qui semblent paradoxaux. De la sorte, il manifeste sa puissance. En , il fut ordonné prêtre. Il devint le directeur de conscience de nombreuses personnes dont une noble romaine veuve, prénommée Paula, et ses filles Blésilla et Eustochia.

Il mourut en On représente Jérôme dans le désert avec un lion à ses pieds. Il voyait dans le bain chaud une atteinte à la chasteté recherche de sensualité. Vous parlez au Seigneur. On ne naît pas chrétien. Il naquit à Alexandrie vers Il fut élu patriarche de sa ville natale en Il ordonna le pillage et la fermeture des églises des novatiens , secte hérétique fondée au IIIe siècle par le pape Novatien.

Il rédigea des Commentaires sur les Ecritures ainsi que des traités doctrinaux. Chronicle , 84, 87— Compilhistoire ; toute reproduction à but non lucratif est autorisée. Date de mise à jour: Date of birth unknown; died 12 March, Before his elevation to the Chair of Peter, very little is known concerning the lifeof this energetic pope , so zealous for the welfare of the whole Church.

According to the "Liber Pontificalis" he was a native of Albano ; his father was called Innocentius. He grew up among the Roman clergy and in the service of the Roman Church. After the death of Anastasius Dec. Not much has come down to us concerning his ecclesiastical activities in Rome.

Nevertheless one or two instances of his zeal for the purity of the Catholic Faith and for churchdiscipline are well attested. A drastic decree , which the Emperor Honorius issued from Rome 22 Feb.

Through the munificence of Vestina, a richRoman matron, Innocentwas enabled to build and richlyendow a churchdedicatedto Sts.

The siege and capture of Rome by the Goths under Alaric occurred in his pontificate. When, at the time of the first siege, the barbarian leader had declared that he would withdraw only on condition that the Romansshould arrange a peace favourable to him, an embassy of the Romanswent to Honorius , at Ravenna , to try, if possible, to make peace between him and the Goths. Pope Innocent also joined this embassy.

But all his endeavours to bring about peace failed. The Goths then recommenced the siege of Rome , so that the pope and the envoys were not able to return to the city, which was taken and sacked in From the beginning of his pontificate, Innocent often actedas head of the whole Church, both East and West. In his letter to ArchbishopAnysius of Thessalonica , in which he informed the latter of his own electionto the See of Rome , he also confirmedthe privileges which had been bestowed upon the archbishop by previous popes.

When Eastern Illyria fell to the EasternEmpire Pope Damasus had asserted and preserved the ancient rights of the papacy in those parts, and his successorSiricius had bestowed on the Archbishop of Thessalonica the privilegeof confirming and consecratingthe bishops of Eastern Illyria. These prerogatives were renewed by Innocent Ep. By this means the papal vicariateof Illyria was put on a sound basis, and the archbishops of Thessalonica became vicarsof the popes. In general, the pope indicated the disciplineof the Roman Church as being the norm for the other bishops to follow.

Innocentdirected a similar decretal to the Spanish bishops Ep. The pope regulated this matterand at the same time settled other questions of ecclesiastical discipline. Similar letters, disciplinary in content, or decisions of important cases, were sent to BishopExuperius of Toulouse Ep. Innocentalso addressed shorter letters to several other bishops , among them a letter to two British bishops , Maximusand Severus, in which he decided that those priests who, while priests , had begotten children should be dismissed from their sacred office Ep.

Envoys were sent by the Synod of Carthage to the Bishop of Rome , or the bishop of the city where the emperor was staying, in order to provide for severer treatment of the Montanists. The envoys came to Rome , and Pope Innocentobtained from the Emperor Honorius a strong decree against those Africansectaries, by which many adherents of Montanism were induced to be reconciled with the Church.

The Christian East also claimed a share of the pope's energy. John Chrysostom , Bishop of Constantinople, who was persecuted by the Empress Eudoxiaand the AlexandrianpatriarchTheophilus, threw himself on the protection of Innocent. Theophilushad already informed the latter of the depositionof John, following on the illegal Synod of the Oak ad quercum.

But the pope did not recognize the sentenceof the synod, summoned Theophilusto a new synod at Rome , consoled the exiled Patriarch of Byzantium, and wrote a letter to the clergy and people of Constantinoplein which he animadverted severely on their conduct towards their bishop John , and announced his intentionof calling a general synod, at which the matter would be sifted and decided.

Thessalonica was suggested as the place of assembly. The pope informed Honorius, Emperor of the West , of these proceedings, whereupon the latter wrote three letters to his brother, the EasternEmperor Arcadius, and besought Arcadius to summon the Eastern bishops to a synodat Thessalonica , before which the PatriarchTheophilus was to appear.

The messengers who brought these three letters were ill received, Arcadius being quite favourable to Theophilus. In spite of the efforts of the pope and the Westernemperor, the synod never took place. Innocent remained in correspondence with the exiled John; when, from his place of banishment the latter thanked him for his kind solicitude, the pope answered with another comforting letter, which the exiled bishop received only a short time before his death Epp.

The pope did not recognize Arsaciusand Atticus, who had been raised to the See of Constantinople instead of the unlawfully deposedJohn. After John'sdeath, Innocent desired that the name of the deceased patriarchshould be restored to the diptychs , but it was not until after Theophiluswas dead that Atticusyielded. The pope obtained from many other Eastern bishops a similar recognition of the wrong done to St.

The schism at Antioch , dating from the Arian conflicts, was finally settled in Innocent'stime. Alexander, Patriarch of Antioch , succeeded, about , in gaining over to his cause the adherents of the former BishopEustathius; he also received into the ranks of his clergy the followers of Paulinus, who had fled to Italy and had been ordained there. Innocentinformed Alexander of these proceedings, and as Alexanderrestored the name of JohnChrysostomto the diptychs , the pope entered into communionwith the Antiochenepatriarch, and wrote him two letters, one in the name of a Romansynod of twenty Italian bishops , and one in his own name Epp.

The pope informed him, though Alexander, of the conditions under which he would resume communion with him Ep. In a later letter Innocentdecided several questions of churchdiscipline Ep. The pope also informed the Macedonian bishop Maximianand the priest Bonifatius, who had interceded with him for the recognition of Atticus, Patriarch of Constantinople, of the conditions, which were similar to those required of the above-mentioned Patriarch of Antioch Epp.

In the Origenist and Pelagian controversies, also, the pope's authority was invokedfrom several quarters. Jerome and the nuns of Bethlehemwere attacked in their convents by brutal followers of Pelagius , a deacon was killed, and a part of the buildings was set on fire. John, Bishop of Jerusalem , who was on bad terms with Jerome, owing to the Origenist controversy, did nothing to prevent these outrages.

Jerome a letter of condolence, in which he informed him that he would employ the influence of the Holy See to repress such crimes; and if Jeromewould give the names of the guilty ones, he would proceed further in the matter.

The pope at once wrote an earnest letter of exhortation to the Bishop of Jerusalem , and reproached him with negligenceof his pastoral duty. The pope was also compelled to take part in the Pelagian controversy. In , on the proposal of Orosius, the Synod of Jerusalem brought the matterof the orthodoxy of Pelagius before the Holy See. The synodof Eastern bishops held at Diospolis Dec.

The bishops of Numidia did likewise in the same year in the Synod of Mileve. Both synods reported their transactions to the pope and asked him to confirmtheir decisions. Soon after this, five African bishops , among them St. Augustine , wrote a personal letter to Innocentregarding their own position in the matterof Pelagianism.

Innocentin his reply praised the African bishops , because, mindful of the authority of the Apostolic See , they had appealedto the Chair of Peter; he rejected the teachings of Pelagius and confirmedthe decisions drawn up by the AfricanSynods Epp. The decisions of the Synod of Diospolis were rejected by the pope.

Pelagius now sent a confessionof faith to Innocent, which, however, was only delivered to his successor, for Innocent died before the document reached the Holy See. He was buried in a basilica above the catacomb of Pontianus, and was venerated as a saint.

He was a very energetic and active man, and a highly gifted ruler, who fulfilled admirably the duties of his office. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Douglas J. IV - Roma, 28 luglio Nativo di Albano, dovette affrontare molte invasioni di barbari di Alarico e Atalulfo, che saccheggiarono due volte Roma. Successe a papa Bonifacio I nel , in una situazione storica assai difficile per la calata in Italia dei Goti.

Estese la sua attività pastorale anche in Oriente, esortando la popolazione di Costantinopoli a seguire san Giovanni Crisostomo e a vivere in pace. Il liber pontificalis stabilisce le sue origini in Albano laziale. Figlio di Anastasio, fu consacrato pontefice il 22 dicembre del La persecuzione di San Giovanni Crisostomo , vescovo di Costantinopoli, da parte dell'imperatrice appoggiata dal vescovo di Alessandria rimase un fatto a se stante.

Nel frattempo Roma fu messa a ferro e fuoco da parte dei goti di Alarico. Correva l'anno domini I suoi interventi dottrinali riguardarono la liturgia sacramentale, la penitenza, l'unzione degli infermi, il battesimo e la indissolubilità del matrimonio, chiaramente ribadita anche nei casi di adulterio.

Durante il suo pontificato si diffuse l'eresia di Pelagio, condannata nel dai concili di Milevi e di Cartagine su iniziativa di S. Agostino e con l'approvazione di Innocenzo I. La sollecitudine del papa non si rivolgeva soltanto alla difesa della dottrina tradizionale della Chiesa: Il 12 marzo le sue spoglie furono sepolte nel cimitero "ad ursum pileatum", sulla via di Porto dove già giacevano le spoglie del padre Anastasio I. Né le 4 janvier à Portela-Allariz Ourense , Pío fut baptisé le jour suivant.

Après son noviciat chez les Salésiens à Barcelone, il fait profession le 3 février Après son ordination sacerdotale, son apostolat se développa dans les collèges de Madrid, Valencia, Salamanca, Santander, Bejar, Sarria. La date et le lieu du martyre restent encore un peu incertains: Pío a été béatifié parmi quatre-cent quatre-vingt dix-sept Martyrs espagnols, en Portela, Spagna, 4 gennaio - Madrid, Spagna, 15 marzo Pio Conde Conde nacque a Portela, provincia di Orense, il 4 gennaio e fu battezzato il giorno dopo.

Fece il Noviziato a Sarrià-Barcellona ed emise la professione religiosa il 3 febbraio Ricevuta l'ordinazione sacerdotale, ebbe un vasto campo di apostolato nei collegi di Sarrià, Madrid, Valenza, Béjar, Salamanca e Santander, dove fu Direttore.

Si distinse nell'osservanza dei suoi doveri. Scoppiata la rivoluzione, a Madrid fu vittima più volte dei miliziani per la sua condizione di sacerdote, fino allo spargimento di sangue.

Imprigionato da ultimo il 15 marzo del , fu destinato al tribunale di Valenza, ma durante il viaggio venne assassinato. Il grandit dans une atmosphère familiale très religieuse et décida de se consacrer à Dieu. Après le baccalauréat, il entra au séminaire diocésain de Przemysl. Une fois ordonné prêtre, il accomplit son service pastoral dans la paroisse de Polna et il fut ensuite envoyé à Rome pour approfondir sa formation, qu'il conclut par une maîtrise en théologie à l'Université pontificale grégorienne.

Dès son retour dans son diocèse, il fut nommé professeur de théologie dogmatique au séminaire diocésain. Sa mission de professeur fut animée par une foi profonde et par l'amour de la vérité.

C'est avant tout dans la prière qu'il trouva la sagesse et la lumière de l'Esprit Saint. Dans les années , il remplit la fonction de Recteur du séminaire. Il mourut à Przemysl, le 15 mars , en odeur de sainteté. Dom Jan Balicki consacra à Dieu et aux hommes les années de sa vie de prêtre, comme professeur et formateur des nouveaux prêtres, comme prédicateur estimé par un très grand nombre de personnes, comme confesseur charismatique et comme pasteur à la recherche des brebis qui, pour différentes raisons, s'étaient éloignées du troupeau du Christ.

Dom Balicki, humble prêtre du diocèse de Przemysl, est un exemple lumineux pour tous les fidèles à notre époque, et en particulier pour les prêtres. Il enseigne comment unir la vie contemplative à l'apostolat, comment aider son prochain dans ses besoins matériels et spirituels, comment conquérir la sainteté en évangélisant le monde.

Mgr Zygmunt Szczesny Felinski. Père Jan Adalbert Balicki. Cracovie - Parc Blonia. Dimanche 18 août Très chers frères et soeurs! Les paroles du Seigneur Jésus que nous venons d'écouter s'inscrivent de façon particulière dans le thème de l'assemblée liturgique d'aujourd'hui, au parc Blonia de Cracovie: Cette devise résume d'une certaine façon toute la vérité sur l'amour de Dieu, qui a racheté l'humanité. La plénitude de cet amour s'est révélée dans le sacrifice de la Croix. Telle est la mesure de l'amour de Dieu!

Telle est la mesure de la miséricorde de Dieu! Lorsque nous sommes conscients de cette vérité, nous nous rendons compte que l'invitation du Christ à aimer les autres, comme Il nous a aimés, nous propose à tous cette même perspective. Nous nous sentons d'une certaine façon poussés à offrir jour après jour notre vie, en faisant preuve de miséricorde envers nos frères, en utilisant le don de l'amour miséricordieux de Dieu.

Nous nous rendons compte que Dieu, en nous accordant la miséricorde, attend que nous soyons les témoins de la miséricorde dans le monde d'aujourd'hui. L'invitation à témoigner de la miséricorde retentit avec une éloquence particulière ici, dans la ville bien-aimée de Cracovie, dominée par le sanctuaire de la Divine Miséricorde de Lagiewniki et par le nouveau temple que j'ai eu hier la joie de consacrer.

Ici, cette invitation retentit de façon familière, car elle remonte à la tradition séculaire de la ville, dont le signe distinctif a toujours été la disponibilité à aider les personnes dans le besoin. On ne peut oublier que de nombreux saints et bienheureux - prêtres, personnes consacrées et laïcs - qui consacrèrent leur vie à des oeuvres de miséricorde, font partie de cette tradition.

A partir de l'Evêque Stanislas, de la Reine Edwige, de Jean de Kety et de Piotr Skarga, jusqu'à frère Adalbert, Angela Salawa, et le Cardinal Sapieha, les générations de fidèles de cette ville, au cours des siècles, se sont transmis l'héritage de la miséricorde. Aujourd'hui, cet héritage est remis entre nos mains et ne doit jamais tomber dans l'oubli. Je remercie le Cardinal Franciszek Macharski qui, à travers ses paroles de salut, a voulu nous rappeler cette tradition.

Je suis reconnaissant pour l'invitation à visiter ma ville de Cracovie et pour l'hospitalité qui m'a été offerte. Je salue les personnes présentes, en commençant par les Cardinaux et les Evêques, ainsi que ceux qui participent à cette Eucharistie à travers la radio et la télévision.

Je salue toute la Pologne. Je parcours en esprit l'itinéraire lumineux sur lequel sainte Faustyna Kowalska s'est préparée à accueillir le message de la miséricorde - de Varsovie, en passant par Plock, Vilnius, jusqu'à Cracovie - en rappelant également tous ceux qui, sur cet itinéraire, ont coopéré à l'apostolat de la Miséricorde.

Je désire saluer nos hôtes. J'adresse des paroles de salut à Monsieur le Président de la République polonaise, à Monsieur le Premier ministre, ainsi qu'aux représentants des Autorités de l'Etat et du territoire.

J'embrasse de tout coeur mes concitoyens, en particulier ceux qui souffrent de la pauvreté et de la maladie; ceux qui sont frappés par de multiples difficultés, les chômeurs, les sans abris, les personnes d'un âge avancé et seules, les familles nombreuses.

Je leur assure que je suis proche d'eux spirituellement et que je les accompagne constamment par la prière. Mon salut s'étend également à mes concitoyens présents dans le monde. Je salue de tout coeur également les pèlerins réunis ici des divers pays d'Europe et du monde.

J'adresse un salut particulier aux Présidents de la Lituanie et de la Slovaquie ici présents. Depuis le début de son existence, l'Eglise, se réclamant du mystère de la Croix et de la Résurrection, prêche la miséricorde de Dieu, signe d'espérance et source de salut pour l'homme. Il semble toutefois qu'aujourd'hui, elle soit appelée de façon particulière à annoncer au monde ce message. Elle ne peut négliger cette mission, si c'est Dieu lui-même qui l'y appelle à travers le témoignage de sainte Faustyna.

Dieu a choisi pour cela notre époque. Peut-être parce que le XX siècle, en dépit des incontestables succès remportés dans de nombreux domaines, a été particulièrement marqué par le "mystère de l'iniquité". Avec cet héritage de bien mais également de mal, nous sommes entrés dans le nouveau millénaire. Face à l'humanité s'ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives de développement et, dans le même temps, des dangers jusqu'à présent inconnus. Souvent, l'homme vit comme si Dieu n'existait pas et prend même la place de Dieu.

Il s'arroge le droit du Créateur d'interférer dans le mystère de la vie humaine. Il veut décider, à travers des manipulations génétiques, de la vie de l'homme et déterminer la limite de la mort.

En repoussant les lois divines et les principes moraux, il porte ouvertement atteinte à la famille. Il tente de diverses façons de faire taire la voix de Dieu dans le coeur des hommes; il veut faire de Dieu le "grand absent" dans la culture et dans la conscience des peuples.

Le "mystère de l'iniquité" continue de marquer la réalité du monde. En faisant l'expérience de ce mystère, l'homme vit la peur de l'avenir, du vide, de la souffrance, de l'anéantissement. Peut-être précisément à cause de cela, c'est comme si le Christ, à travers le témoignage d'une humble soeur, était entré à notre époque pour indiquer clairement la source du réconfort et de l'espérance qui se trouve dans l'éternelle miséricorde de Dieu. Il faut faire retentir le message de l'amour miséricordieux avec une vigueur renouvelée.

Le monde a besoin de cet amour. L'heure est venue de faire parvenir le message du Christ à tous: L'heure est venue où le message de la Divine Miséricorde doit répandre l'espérance dans les coeurs et devenir l'étincelle d'une nouvelle civilisation: L'Eglise désire annoncer inlassablement ce message, non seulement par des paroles ferventes, mais par une pratique ardente de la miséricorde.

C'est pourquoi elle indique sans cesse des exemples merveilleux de personnes qui, au nom de l'amour de Dieu et de l'homme, "sont allées et ont porté du fruit". Aujourd'hui, elle y ajoute quatre nouveaux bienheureux. Les époques auxquelles ils ont vécu sont différentes, leurs vies personnelles sont diverses. Toutefois, ils sont unis par ce trait de sainteté particulier qui est le dévouement à la cause de la miséricorde.

Le bienheureux Zygmunt Szczesny Felinski , Archevêque de Cracovie, à une époque difficile marquée par le manque de liberté civile, a invité à persévérer dans le service généreux aux pauvres, à fonder des institutions éducatives et des structures caritatives.

Il fonda lui-même un orphelinat et une école et fit venir dans la capitale les Soeurs de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie de la Miséricorde, en soutenant l'oeuvre qu'elles avaient commencée.

Après la fin de l'insurrection de , poussé par des sentiments de miséricorde envers ses frères, il défendit ouvertement les persécutés. Le prix payé pour cette fidélité a été la déportation en Russie, pendant vingt ans. Là aussi, il continua à se rappeler des personnes pauvres et abandonnées en faisant preuve à leur égard d'un grand amour, d'une grande patience et d'une grande compréhension.

On a écrit de lui que, "au cours de son exil, opprimé par tous, dans la simplicité de la prière, il est toujours resté seul au pied de la Croix, en se confiant à la Divine Miséricorde". Il s'agit d'un exemple de ministère pastoral, que je veux confier de façon particulière à mes frères dans l'épiscopat. Très chers amis, Monseigneur Felinski soutient vos efforts pour créer et mettre en place un programme pastoral de la miséricorde. Que ce programme constitue votre engagement, tout d'abord dans la vie de l'Eglise et, comme cela est nécessaire et opportun, également dans la vie sociale et politique de la nation, de l'Europe et du monde.

Mû par cet esprit de charité sociale, Monseigneur Felinski s'est profondément engagé dans la défense de la liberté nationale. Cela est nécessaire aujourd'hui également, alors que diverses forces, guidées par une fausse idéologie de liberté, cherchent à s'approprier ce terrain. Cette philosophie de liberté est structurellement liée à l'histoire de notre nation. Le désir d'apporter la miséricorde aux plus indigents a conduit le bienheureux Jan Beyzym , jésuite et grand missionnaire - sur l'île lointaine de Madagascar, où, par amour du Christ, il a consacré sa vie aux lépreux.

Il servit jour et nuit tous ceux qui vivaient marginalisés et exclus de la vie de la société. A travers ses oeuvres de miséricorde en faveur des personnes abandonnées et méprisées, il a apporté un témoignage extraordinaire.

Un témoignage qui a d'abord résonné à Cracovie, puis en Pologne et, enfin, parmi les Polonais à l'étranger. Des fonds ont été recueillis pour construire l'hôpital dédié à la Madone de Czestochowa, qui existe aujourd'hui encore. Un des promoteurs de cette aide a été le saint frère Adalbert. Je me réjouis que cet esprit de solidarité dans la miséricorde continue à être vivant dans l'Eglise polonaise ; c'est ce que manifestent les nombreuses oeuvres d'aide aux communautés frappées par les catastrophes naturelles dans les régions du monde, ainsi que la récente initiative d'acquérir le surplus de production de céréales pour le destiner à ceux qui souffrent de la faim en Afrique.

J'espère que cette noble idée pourra se réaliser. L'oeuvre caritative du bienheureux Jan Beyzym était inscrite dans sa mission fondamentale: Voilà le plus grand don de la miséricorde: C'est pourquoi je vous demande: Soutenez sans cesse les missionnaires par l'aide et la prière. La vie du bienheureux Jan Balicki fut marquée par le service de la miséricorde.

Comme prêtre, il a toujours eu un coeur ouvert aux personnes dans le besoin. Son ministère de miséricorde, outre l'aide aux malades et aux pauvres, s'est exprimé avec une énergie particulière à travers le ministère du confessionnal , plein de patience et d'humilité, toujours prêt à rapprocher le pécheur repenti du trône de la grâce divine. En faisant mémoire de lui, je voudrais dire aux prêtres et aux séminaristes: L'oeuvre de la miséricorde a tracé l'itinéraire de la vocation religieuse de la bienheureuse Sancja Szymkowiak , Soeur "séraphique".

Déjà, dans sa famille, elle reçut un amour fervent pour le Sacré-Coeur de Jésus, et dans cet esprit, elle fut pleine de bonté pour tous, en particulier pour les plus pauvres et les personnes dans le besoin. Elle commença à apporter de l'aide aux pauvres, d'abord comme membre de l'Association mariale et de l'Association de la Miséricorde de saint Vincent, pour se consacrer ensuite, ayant embrassé la vie religieuse, au service des autres avec davantage de ferveur.

Elle accepta les périodes difficiles de l'occupation nazie comme une occasion de se consacrer totalement aux personnes dans le besoin. Elle considérait sa vocation religieuse comme un don de la Divine Miséricorde. En saluant la Congrégation de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie des Douleurs - les Soeurs "séraphiques" -, je m'adresse à toutes les religieuses et aux personnes consacrées.

Que la bienheureuse Sancja soit votre exemple, votre patronne. Adoptez son testament spirituel synthétisé par une phrase simple: Frères et soeurs, en contemplant la figure de ces bienheureux, je veux rappeler une fois de plus ce que j'ai écrit dans l'Encyclique sur la Divine Miséricorde: Si seulement nous pouvions redécouvrir sur cette voie, toujours plus profondément, le mystère de la Miséricorde Divine, et le vivre de façon quotidienne!

Face aux formes modernes de pauvreté qui, comme je le sais, ne manquent pas dans notre pays, nous avons besoin aujourd'hui - comme je l'ai défini dans la Lettre Novo millennio ineunte - d'une "imagination de la charité" , dans un esprit de solidarité envers le prochain, afin que l'aide soit un témoignage de "partage fraternel" cf. Que cette "imagination" ne manque pas aux habitants de Cracovie et de toute notre Patrie.

Que celle-ci trace le programme pastoral de l'Eglise qui est en Pologne. Puisse le message de la miséricorde de Dieu se refléter toujours dans les oeuvres de miséricorde de l'homme! Ce regard d'amour est nécessaire pour s'apercevoir du frère qui est à côté de nous, qui, en perdant son travail, sa maison, la possibilité de nourrir dignement sa famille et d'assurer l'instruction de ses enfants, ressent un sentiment d'abandon, d'égarement et de méfiance.

Que ne manque pas l'"imagination" là où une personne dans le besoin supplie: Grâce à l'amour fraternel, que ne manque jamais ce pain. Au cours de mon premier pèlerinage dans ma patrie, en , ici, au parc Blonia, j'ai dit que: C'est pourquoi je vous ai demandé: Frères et soeurs, je répète aujourd'hui cette invitation: Aujourd'hui, alors que nous vivons d'autres temps, à l'aube du nouveau siècle et du nouveau millénaire, continuez à être "prêts à témoigner de la cause de l'homme".

Aujourd'hui, de toutes mes forces, je prie les fils et les filles de l'Eglise et les hommes de bonne volonté de ne jamais séparer, quoi qu'il arrive, la "cause de l'homme" de l'amour de Dieu. Aidez l'homme moderne à faire l'expérience de l'amour miséricordieux de Dieu! Que dans sa splendeur et sa chaleur, il sauve son humanité!

Prêtre le 20 juillet Professeur de théologie au séminaire de Przemysl. Recteur de à Sa famille est pauvre mais riche en vertus humaines et chrétiennes. En , après sa scolarité, il entre au séminaire des latins de Przemysl et il est ordonné prêtre en Après avoir obtenu une maîtrise de théologie en , il revient dans son diocèse et il est nommé professeur de théologie dogmatique dans son séminaire de Przemysl.

Il est aussi Préfet des études. De plus, en il est nommé Recteur du Séminaire. Beaucoup témoignent de son don extraordinaire de pénétration des âmes. La seconde guerre mondiale détériore sa santé déjà fragile. La béatification du 18 août à Cracovie.

Ce n'est qu'ainsi qu'il est possible d'édifier la civilisation de l'amour désirée, dont la force douce s'oppose avec vigueur au mysterium iniquitatis présent dans le monde.

C'est à nous, disciples du Christ, que revient la tâche de proclamer et de vivre le profond mystère de la Miséricorde Divine qui régénère le monde, en nous poussant à aimer nos frères et même nos ennemis. La Galicie appartenait alors à l' Empire austro-hongrois et était mieux protégée dans son particularisme polonais que la partie polonaise de l' Empire russe.

Il entra au séminaire diocésain de Przemysl Prömsel en allemand et après son ordination en fut vicaire à Polna. Il avait un amour profond de la Vérité et centrait ses études sur la théologie de saint Thomas d' Aquin. Il se dédiait à Dieu et à ses séminaristes qu' il veillait à confesser régulièrement ainsi que les fidèles dont il avait la responsabilité spirituelle.

Il ne se contentait pas que de cela: Elle avait d' importantes fortifications et était considérée comme le Verdun autrichien. Elle se rendit le 22 mars dans un conflit régional qui fit de nombreux morts et plus de prisonniers. Mais trois mois après la ville fut reprise par les Autrichiens et les Allemands, tandis que le nationalisme polonais se réveillait. La ville connut une période d' accalmie, lorsque l' Empire russe allié des Occidentaux s' effondra en et que la Pologne put renaître de ses cendres.

Hélas, la région fut vite en proie à un nouveau conflit lorsque la nouvelle Ukraine nationaliste qui avait été appuyée par les Allemands avant leur défaite attaqua la région. Finalement la défaite des Autrichiens et des Allemands permit aux Polonais de contrattaquer les Ukrainiens et la ville devint polonaise le 12 novembre Après la guerre polono-soviétique de , le rattachement de Przemysl à la Pologne fut confirmé par le traité de Riga du 18 mars Il devint vice-recteur puis recteur du séminaire entre et Sa santé l' obligea alors à résigner sa charge conservant la direction spirituelle des séminaristes en particulier du futur bienheureux Ladislas Findysz.

Il distinguait sept degrés dans le progrès spirituel: Le 15 septembre la région fut occupée par les Allemands après une semaine de combats et quelques jours après par l' URSS alliée neutre du Reich hitlérien de l' autre côté de la rivière San. Hitler qui se déplaça dans la région voulait en faire une zone ukrainienne, mais elle fut intégrée au Gouvernement Général.

La ville était divisée en deux: Le séminaire se replia en zone allemande, mais l' abbé Balicki décida de rester dans la vieille ville sous occupation soviétique. Nikita Krouchtchev s' y rendit à cette époque au moment de l'épuration des cadres de l' ancienne Pologne.

Le 28 septembre des nationalistes ukrainiens pro-soviétiques commirent leurs premiers massacres contre la population polonaise. Les deux hommes menaient une vie de prière dans un confinement sans cesse soumis aux vexations des occupants. Il fut en punition confiné dans une seule pièce.

Le vandalisme anti-catholique se déchaîna dans toute la partie polonaise occupée par les communistes. Sous l' occupation soviétique qui dura deux ans, 11 Polonais trouvèrent la mort. L'élite intellectuelle et administrative de la ville fut décimée.

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Mark, in particolare, era stato torturato a tal punto che due guardie dovevano sorreggerlo. Eldest of twelve brothers in his family. Graduated from the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome , Italy in , and was ordained as a priest on 9 July Taught philosophy at the Inter- Brescia seminary in Joined the Jesuits in Gorizia , Italy in Chair of the philosophy department in Scutari, Albania from to Chair of the department of philosophy in Mantua , Italy and leader of the Jesuits there in Father Gjon suffered from lengthy health problems which required regular treatment and reduction in his work schedule from to , but on 2 February he made his solemn profession in the Jesuits and returned to full-time adminstration, teaching and ministry.

Worked to start a Christian -Muslim dialogue in Albania. Transferred to Tirana, Albania in where he worked to help and protect all Albanians in the privations and persecutions of World War II. Vice-provincial of the Jesuits in Albania in Arrested by the Communist regime on 31 December , and in a show trial, was sentenced to death for being a spy for the Vatican and a traitor to Albania. The ceremony took place in the Square of St. In his homily Cardinal Amato said: The canonical process for the recognition of the martyrdom and the official approval of the witness and sacrifice for the faith culminated in a decree promulgated by Pope Francis in April which gave the green light for the beatification of the martyrs.

Father Anton Zogaj was shot on a beach near Durres after refusing to divulge confessional secrets. Father Lazer Shantoja , a nationally admired poet, was shot in the head after being forced to crawl in excruciating pain when his arms and legs were broken under torture.

Around Catholic priests were executed or died through imprisonment, alongside thousands of lay Christians, under communist rule in Albania, which lasted from to Marcheno, Brescia, 9 ottobre — Scutari, Albania, 4 marzo Il 4 marzo venne fucilato presso il cimitero cattolico di Scutari insieme a padre Dajani, al francescano Gjon Shllaku, al seminarista Mark Çuni e ai laici Gjelosh Lulashi e Qerim Sadiku. Giovanni Fausti nacque a Brozzo, frazione di Marcheno, in Val Trompia in provincia e diocesi di Brescia il 9 ottobre , primo dei dodici figli di Antonio Fausti e Maria Sigolini, genitori religiosi e inclini alla carità.

Verso i 18 anni, nel , fu chiamato alle armi e dovette interrompere gli studi. Congedato nello stesso col grado di sottotenente di artiglieria, riprese gli studi presso il Pontificio Seminario Lombardo di Roma. Nel era già professore di filosofia nel Seminario di Brescia. Nella Compagnia di Gesù. Dal al fu inviato in Albania come professore di filosofia presso il Pontificio Seminario di Scutari, affidato ai Gesuiti.

A Mantova e Gallarate. A Gallarate rimase sei anni, dimostrando eminenti doti pedagogiche e intellettuali. Di nuovo in Albania. Fiduciosi nella prudenza di padre Giovanni, i superiori, nel maggio , lo promossero Viceprovinciale dei Gesuiti in Albania. La sera stessa, appena tornati a Scutari, i due sacerdoti vennero arrestati.

Padre Giovanni fu tenuto in isolamento per due mesi e, anche in seguito, fu sottoposto a torture. Si trattava in realtà dello pseudonimo con cui i seminaristi Mark Çuni e Gjergj Bici avevano firmato alcuni volantini con cui avevano cercato di contrastare la propaganda comunista, stampati in proprio e senza farne parola con i superiori. Ogni volta che doveva passare dalla prigione al tribunale, padre Giovanni veniva pesantemente insultato.

Una donna, ad esempio, si fece avanti gridando con voce rabbiosa: La notizia del martirio di padre Giovanni Fausti e dei suoi compagni si diffuse celermente in tutto il mondo cattolico, suscitando dolore e stupore. La Compagnia di Gesù, pochi anni dopo, ebbe un ulteriore martire, il fratello laico Gjon Pantalia, morto il 31 ottobre Antonio Borrelli ed Emilia Flocchini. La sua foto, insieme con quella degli altri martiri, laici e religiosi, giganteggiava lungo il viale dei Martiri per la patria in occasione della visita di Papa Francesco a Tirana.

Proprio per questo fu torturato e, nel , condannato a morte e ucciso. Accusato di essere un politicante traditore della nazione, viene prima arrestato e poi ucciso insieme con padre Daniel, e altri confratelli e seminaristi gesuiti. La sua foto, insieme con quella di altri 39 martiri, giganteggiava lungo il viale dei Martiri per la patria in vista della visita di Papa Francesco.

La repressione contro i cattolici, ma anche contro gli ortodossi e i musulmani, fu durissima. Al primo sacerdote ucciso, don Lazër Shantoja, furono spezzati mani e piedi, don Lekë Sirdani e don Pjetër Çuni furono affogati immergendoli a testa in giù in un pozzo nero, A padre Serafin Koda fu tagliata la gola e tirata fuori la laringe, papas Josif, sacerdote cattolico di rito bizantino, fu sepolto vivo nel fango.

Padre Frano Kiri fu legato per tre giorni a un cadavere, padre Gjon Karma chiuso vivo in una bara… Nonostante le atrocità e le torture, i cristiani continuavano a non rinnegare la propria fede. Al termine della persecuzione restavano in Albania, appena 33 sacerdoti vivi , molti di loro sopravvissuti a torture e lavori forzati, come ha raccontato al Papa don Ernst Simoni, mettendosi poi in ginocchio davanti a lui.

Con padre Giovanni Fausti ricordiamo tutti i 40 martiri albanesi per i quali è in corso la causa di beatificazione: Blinisht, Albania, 2 dicembre — Scutari, Albania, 4 marzo Il 31 dicembre venne arrestato dalla polizia del regime comunista albanese insieme al confratello padre Giovanni Fausti; sottoposto a torture, non perse mai la calma e la fede.

A seguito di un processo-farsa, venne condannato a morte insieme al confratello padre Giovanni Fausti, al francescano GjonShllaku, al seminarista Mark Çuni e ai laici GjeloshLulashi eQerimSadiku: Gesuita albanese di nascita. Daniel Dajani nacque il 2 dicembre a Blinisht, nella pianura di Zadrine, a sud-est di Scutari in Albania. Il 2 febbraio fece la sua professione religiosa. Quando le truppe di Hitler si ritirarono alla fine del , subentrarono al potere i partigiani comunisti comandati da EnverHoxha, che presero a mettere in atto una campagna di discredito e soprusi nei confronti dei cattolici.

Padre Daniel, che avrebbe voluto proseguire con i suoi viaggi di riconciliazione, venne nominato Rettore del Seminario di Scutari,nel settembre Il suo atteggiamento sereno e la sua fermezza erano particolarmente lodati dai suoi studenti, che rassicurava soprattutto mediante le sue azioni.

Padre Daniel fu tenuto in isolamento per due mesi e, anche in seguito, fu sottoposto a torture. Nel gennaio , insieme ad altri prigionieri, venne sottoposto a un processo che, in realtà, aveva la conclusione già scritta.

Padre Daniel, con i segni delle torture ancora visibili sul volto, rispose con fermezza alle accuse che venivano rivolte a lui e agli altri: Per Gjergj Bici la sentenza venne poi cambiata in anni di lavori forzati, mentre FranMirakaj risulta che sia morto nel settembre Sono contento di poter morire da innocente piuttosto che da colpevole.

La notizia del martirio di padre Daniel Dajani e dei suoi compagni si diffuse celermente in tutto il mondo cattolico, suscitando dolore e stupore. Persecution of Catholics in Albania. Used with permission from the Albanian Catholic Information Center.

For more information about religious persecution in Albania write: I enjoyed the friendship of Reverend Lazer Shantoja for many years. I came to know of his great literary aspirations. At La Motte in Switzerland in the s, Father Shantoja revealed his oft-delayed plans for a major literary work.

He firmly believed that a national domestic life centered upon all-but-forgotten virtues could flourish but only if built around those hearths where the flames symbolized the cult of liberty based on belief in God.

With a great deal of reticence, he revealed that he needed to renew contact with the soil, the people, and the atmosphere of his fatherland. In this regard, he always spoke in such playful and nostalgic phrases as: She was a native of Shkodra.

Although uneducated, she overflowed with rich human experiences. Not knowing a word of French, she was continually afflicted with an incurable homesickness. She immersed herself day and night in remembering the lost homeland, events of far away Shkodra, relatives and acquaintances and speaking of faded memories of the past. She spoke the native tongue of Shkodra perfectly. Her nuanced language sparkled with colorful phrases, and was always spoken with the distinctive intonations characteristic of Albanian women of every social class.

The poet-son was greatly indebted to her for influencing his style of expression. It was a priceless dowry from a mother to her son. Lazer Shantoja was born in Shkodra in During his boyhood, he was steered towards a religious vocation by his priest uncle. In the Jesuit-run Pontifical Seminary at Shkodra, he received a solid cultural preparation and studied Greek, Latin and Italian languages. Shantoja distinguished himself in the language courses.

In his early adolescence he came under the influence of the literary movement which appeared on the wake of the early Albanian Cultural revival. For Philosophy and Theology studies he was sent to Innsbruck, Austria.

There he learned to read, write, and speak the German language fluently. Following ordination in , Shantoja was placed in charge of several mountain parishes near Sheldija. This prosperous and pleasant region was not too far distant from Shkodra. I often heard about the learned young pastor who had transported a piano by mule-back over the difficult mountain paths to Sheldija.

The new Archbishop was a strong-willed man of high moral stature and exceptional political foresight. He quickly undertook enlightened and efficient measures to raise the social status and civil power of the Catholic population. He gave his support to the political activity of Luigj Gurakuqi, the Catholic founder and leader of the Christian-Democrat party. A majority of the Moslem population soon allied itself with this party.

Archbishop Mjeda promoted the cultural initiative of the citizenry by appointing Shantoja his personal secretary. The poet arrived in Shkodra with his books and his piano. Citizens gathered nightly for the impromptu concerts. Awed passers-by would often gaze in admiration towards the palace window. The newspaper enjoyed immediate and extraordinary success. The widely circulated newspaper disseminated democratic ideas throughout an Albanian society that was still imprisoned by anachronistic, medieval concepts.

Shantoja thrust himself into political competition with all the ardor of his capricious temperament. He demonstrated more of the spirit and style of an artist than the passion of a party member. It was precisely this artistic temperament that exploded in brilliant, polemic cues which struck the readers, enthused friends, and irritated his foes.

Filled with a joy of expression, he caught in his aim every target. His short prose paragraphs and his scratching, corrosive, satiric verses were written in a piercing style and popular vein. They were received with avid interest by the readership.

Producing these emotion-filled works amused him tremendously. With the fervor of a true believer and with an unshakeable will, he set out to utilize his learning to fulfill his duty towards his country. Shantoja dedicated every line of his works to the spiritual elevation of the Albanian people. Unfortunately, the Albanian people in the s and s had not yet reached a level of political maturity necessary either for understanding or sustaining the improvements suggested to them in the works of the innovators.

Most Albanians failed to heed the call for better methods of government and the achievement of higher social levels. When the government of Bishop Fan Noli collapsed in , hostile, anti-intellectuals filled the political vacuum with the help of foreign mercenaries. Shantoja joined hundreds of other literati and intellectuals in exile. He lived in Yugoslavia for a few years, then moved to Vienna before finally arriving in Berne, Switzerland.

He obtained a position as a German speaking chaplain in a Berne Catholic church. Later he moved on to serve as the chaplain at La Motte where he gained fame for his sermons in French. No impulse of hatred drove Shantoja to participate in political activities in Albania. His writings betrayed great depths of innate ingenuity. They contained fervent emotions and patriotic thoughts endowed with the freshness and idealism of everlasting adolescence.

The poet remained open to the most varied manifestations of life and always demonstrated a love for people, music, and sports. Shantoja frequently climbed mountains in Albania, Austria and Switzerland with only a knapsack on his shoulders and an alpenstock in hand. His memory is preserved only in some brief yet splendid prose, and in a few lofty lyric poems.

After spending 15 years in exile, Shantoja needed the inspiring breath of his homeland and renewed contact with his countrymen in order to create. While awaiting permission to return to Albania he translated the writings of Goethe, Schiller and various Italian poets. Meanwhile he wrote newspaper articles and poetry that appeared in the newspapers owned by fellow exiles.

Throughout the final years of exile, there always remained stifled within him the desire to set about the work which would undoubtedly have affirmed his artistic genius and gained him world-wide recognition as a literary scholar.

Return to the Homeland. Finally, Shantoja was allowed to return to Albania in During this confused, troubled and anxious political period, events took him by storm. He settled down with his mother in a small house in Tirane where he intended to work peacefully with his books and notes. However, in he was arrested, thrown into a terrible prison, and tortured. Do him this charity! Many people wonder why the communists harassed the priest poet in such an atrocious manner.

After his return to Albania, he avoided political involvement. In fact, he conscientiously avoided all political currents agitating the country in Death of the Priest Poet. The only explanation for the barbarous treatment afforded Shantoja was that the Albanian communists were anti-western and anti-Christian. The cultural enamel of western civilization, which sparkled in his prose and lyrics, irritated and frightened the communists. They saw him as an anti-communist instrument which could easily penetrate young hearts.

It was nurtured in substance with ethnic juices, but expressed in a very modern key in which suffering and humor harmonized elegantly. He knew how to express in words the typically sarcastic vein of the Albanian race marked with western humor.

His few but exemplary works placed him in the mainstream of Albanian literature, next to the most refined Albanian stylist Faik Konitza The unspeakable cruelties endured by Shantoja reduced him to a state near death. Finally a communist woman soldier delivered the coup de grace by shooting him in the neck.

His body was buried along with the octogenarian Moslem patrician Sulcio Bey Bushati in an unmarked tomb in an unknown place. Sulcio Bey Bushati had represented the whole of the noble Albanian traditions.

In burying the pious priest and Moslem nobleman together, the Communist deniers of God and of the homeland deluded themselves into believing they had thrust into oblivion a root of Albanian traditions and its revitalized offshoot.

No, do not ask these verses of me. The lyre with which I wished to gain you honor. It cannot thrill with joy. Flower for others then. I, keeping my life from. In my exile the hymn of joy I raised.

Scutari, Albania, 2 settembre — Tirana, Albania, 5 marzo Dotato di un animo sensibile, lo espresse nello studio del pianoforte, nella traduzione di poeti stranieri e in sue composizioni personali. Inviso al nuovo regime comunista, venne torturato e infine, il 5 marzo , ucciso con un colpo di pistola alla nuca. Inserito nel gruppo dei 38 martiri uccisi in Albania durante il regime comunista, è stato beatificato a Scutari il 5 novembre Formazione sacerdotale e letteraria.

Lazër Shantoja nacque a Scutari in Albania il 2 settembre Il parroco col pianoforte. La sera, nel tempo libero dagli impegni, don Lazër si dedicava al suo amato strumento, tanto che in breve, sotto le finestre del palazzo arcivescovile, si radunavano molti passanti per quei concerti improvvisati. I suoi articoli, scritti con uno stile arguto e polemico, gli valsero il rispetto anche dagli avversari politici, proprio per il modo con cui trattava i vari argomenti.

Produsse anche saggi brevi, articoli e poesie. Il rientro e la persecuzione. Nel fu in grado di tornare in Albania e scelse di stabilirsi a Tirana, insieme alla madre, in una piccola casa, per dedicarsi solo alla letteratura. Tuttavia, la prese di potere da parte dei comunisti lo rese subito sgradito: Il martirio e la beatificazione. Venne subito torturato, tanto che gli furono spezzati gambe e braccia: Évêque de Barcelone et de Tarragone en Espagne, au temps de la libération de la domination des musulmans.

Sepulcro de San Olegario, Catedral de Barcelona. Fête le 6 mars. Voué à Dieu par ses parents, alors que les Sarrasins ravageaient la Catalogne, il devint évêque de Barcelone Catalogne , puis archevêque de Tarragone. Born at Barcelona, Spain, in ; died at Tarragona in Ollegarius joined the Augustinian canons regular and was prior in several houses in France before being promoted to the see of Barcelona in The following year he was transferred to the archbishopric of Tarragona. That diocese he successfully raised from the condition of neglect and decay into which it had fallen during the Moorish domination Benedictines.

Prior of a succession of monasteries in France. Bishop of Barcelona , Spain in Archbishop of Tarragona , Spain in Revived and rebuilt the diocese from the sorry state in to which it had fallen during the Moorish occupation. Sant' Ollegario di Tarragona Vescovo. Nacque a Barcellona da Ollegario, segretario del conte Raimondo Bereguer I, e da Giulia, tra il e il , e fu educato fin da bambino nella canonica della cattedrale della sua città, di cui divenne praepositus nel , dopo essere stato ordinato sacerdote.

Ruffo in Provenza, di cui divenne abate. Mentre si trovava a Gaeta insieme al papa Gelasio II, il 21 marzo , venne trasferito, su proposta del conte Raimondo Berenguer III di Barcellona, all'arcidiocesi di Tarragona, riconquistata poco prima ai musulmani. Nel fu nominato da Callisto II legato a latere per la Spagna. Eccelse nell'attività pastorale per la restaurazione della provincia ecclesiastica di Tarragona e della disciplina canonica.

Mori il 6 marzo ; le spoglie, incorrotte, sono venerate in un altare della cattedrale di Barcellona. Il culto ab immemorabili fu approvato a Roma il 18 maggio , e quindi se ne introdusse la memoria nel Martirologio Romano. La festa si celebra il 6 marzo. Nato da un'illustre famiglia feudale dell'Alvernia e divenuto religioso cistercense a Grandselve nella diocesi di Tolosa, Ponzio ne fu eletto abate nel ed il suo nome compare con frequenza nel Cartulario di quella abbazia.

Iniziava cosI una carriera diplomatica che sarebbe durata, non senza intervalli, per una quindicina d'anni. L'impresa non ebbe esito felice, come si sa, malgrado l'intervento di Eberardo, vescovo di Bamberga, che si era unito ad essi. Divenuto vescovo di Clermont nel , Ponzio dovette ancora una volta fare da mediatore nella riconciliazione tra il papato e l'impero, unitamente a Ugo, abate di Bonnevaux, altro cistercense. Questa volta ancora egli ebbe ruolo di ambasciatore dell'imperatore, contribuendo all'avvento della pace, che fu conclusa a Venezia nel Possediamo sul suo episcopato un certo numero di interessanti testimonianze sulle chiese e i monasteri della sua diocesi, oltre che su alcuni dettagli della sua vita: Era legato da amicizia con Maurizio di Sully, vescovo di Parigi e con l'abate di S.

Bernardo che stava scrivendo. Il Grande Esordio di Citeaux dist. Il suo epitafio è stato ritrovato nella chiesa di Chamalières, prossima a Clermont, dove probabilmente fu inumato: Il suo nome è iscritto nel Menologio cistercense al 6 marzo, data conservata dal du Saussay nel suo Martirologio Gallicano.

Jean Larke avait été nommé recteur de Chelsea par son ami, saint Thomas More dont Jean Ireland était le secrétaire avant de devenir lui-même recteur à Eltham, dans le Kent. Died ; the first two were beatified in ; Ireland in Blessed Jermyn German was educated at Cambridge. These last two were secular priests. John Ireland, after being chaplain to the same saint, was made rector of Eltham, Kent Benedictines.

Educated at the University of Cambridge , England. Secretary to the bishop of Winchester , England. Martyred with Blessed John Larke for refusing to recognize the spiritual supremacy of the King of England. Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, ; secretary to, and probably a kinsmenof, Stephen Gardiner, and an able defender of the old Faith , as his tract against JohnFrith dated 1 August, shows. During the years of fiery trial, which followed, we hear no more of him than that "he was stirred up to courage " by the examples of the martyrs , and especially by More , a layman like himself.

His witness was given eight years later, under remarkable circumstances. Henry VIII was becoming more severe upon the fast-multiplying heretics. Canmer fell under suspicion, and Gardiner was or was thought to have been employed in drawing up a list of that heresiarch's errors in the Faith. Then the whim of the religiousdespot changed again, and the Catholic was sacrificed in the heretic's place. Still he was the last victim, and Henryafterwards became even more hostile to Protestantism.

Gardiner's indictment states plainly that he was executedfor endeavouring "to deprive the King of his dignity, title, and name of Supreme Head of the English and Irish Church", and his constancy is further proved by this circumstance, that Thomas Haywood, who had been condemned with him, was afterward pardoned on recanting his opinions.

His other companions at the bar were Blessed John Larke , priest , whom Blessed Thomas More had presented to the rectory of Chelsea when he himself lived in that parish , and also the Ven. JohnIreland, who had once been More's chaplain. They suffered the death of traitors at Tyburn. Robert Appleton Company, Farley, Archbishop of New York.

The Prebendaries' Plot was named after the five prebendary canons of Canterbury Cathedral including William Hadleigh, a monk at Christchurch Canterbury prior to the monastery's dissolution who formed its core. Others involved were two holders of the new cathedral office of "six preacher" created in , along with various local non-cathedral priests and Kentish gentlemen eg Thomas Moyle, Edward Thwaites and Cyriac Pettit.

Simultaneous agitation at the court in Windsor, and the conspiracy in general, was led covertly by Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. Henry VIII's chaplain Richard Cox was charged with investigating and suppressing it, and his success priests and 60 laypeople of both sexes were accused of involvement led to his being made Cranmer's chancellor and later, under Elizabeth, bishop of Ely.

Gardiner survived, though his relation German Gardiner, who had acted as his secretary and intermediary to the plotters in Kent, was executed in for questioning the Royal Supremacy. Robert Singleton, a parish priest, was also executed under a charge of treason, but he has not been beatified. John Heywood , the playwright and grandfather of John Donne was also on the scaffold at Tyburn sentenced to death, but he recanted and was spared. He also had connections to St.

Thomas More and survived the ups and downs of the Tudor succession until Elizabeth I's reign. Then he went into exile in Mechelen, Belgium where he died around German Gardiner era un laico, segretario di Stefano Gardiner del quale assai probabilmente era anche parente.

Trovatosi in controversia con i riformatori, prese a considerare piuttosto quali eroi quei martiri morti in difesa delle prerogative del papato. I tre martiri vennero impiccati e squartati il 7 marzo La loro glorificazione terrena ha seguito tempi diversi: Saint Bède a fait son éloge, l'appelant homme d'exceptionnelles qualités et de grande sainteté, 'un homme aimé de Dieu'. Il était moine de l'abbaye bénédictine de Whitby en Angleterre, monastère sous la règle de Sainte Hilda.

Il a été sacré évêque par saint Théodore de Cantorbery en et se joint à saint Wilfrid pour refuser la scission du diocèse de York dont il devint évêque en quand Wilfrid fut exilé par le roi Alfrid.

Whitby Abbey site en anglais. York Minster - cathédrale de York, listes des évêques site en anglais. Fête le 9 mars. Saint Acca compta au nombre de ses élèves. Bède et Alcuin ont fait son éloge. Vers , Bosel fut nommé évêque du diocèse nouvellement formé de Wigorna Ceaster, auj.

Celle-ci, fondée quelques années auparavant par des missionnaires, fut dès lors desservie par un chapitre de chanoines. In , he was consecrated bishop of Deira the southern half of Northumbria, now Yorkshire by Saint Theodore, with his see at York, when Saint Wilfrid was driven out by King Egfrid for refusing to accept the division of his see.

Wilfrid returned in , but Bosa took over the diocese in when Wilfrid was again exiled following a quarrel with King Aldfrid; Bosa ruled it with great holiness and ability until his death. Saint Bede praises Bosa as "a man beloved by God. Bishop of Deira modern York , the southern half of Northumbria , now Yorkshire, in Bishop again in when Wilfrid was exiled after a quarrel with King Aldfrid. Bosa, Bishop of York. Bosa was a Northumbrian, educated at the great Abbey of Whitby under St.

He later joined the brethren there as a monk and became a noted scholar. Bede praised his 'singular merit and holiness'. In AD , when St. Wilfred was ejected from the Bishopric of York and banished from the Kingdom, Bosa was given his diocese over which to preside; though it was much-reduced, with Hexham and Lindsey being divided off. His episcopate lasted nine years, but with Wilfred back in favour in AD , Bosa was removed just like his predecessor; only to be returned once more in AD Vital de Castronovo, sicilien, ermite, fondateur et abbé à Armentum.

Saint Vital, comme les autres, est né en Sicile, à peu près à la même époque que saint Luc d'Armento qu'il rencontra un jour sur sa route, et qui, comme lui, est venu demander asile à la Calabre, puis à la Basilicate; chacune de ses étapes, Castro-Roseto, Monte-Raparo, Sant-Angelo de Asprono, Saint-Élie de Massaniello, Armento, Rapolla enfin où il meurt, marque un pas de plus dans la marche en avant de l'hellénisme calabrais. Lui aussi enfin se trouve un jour en présence des Sarrasins, et on nous le montre, après avoir protégé la fuite de son monde, restant seul pour faire front à l'ennemi: L'abbaye de Rossano , Pierre Batiffol, Au bout de cinq ans, il partit en pèlerinage à Rome.

Près du cap Spulico, où sévissaient des bandes de voleurs, il rétablit la paix et la confiance. Sa prière arrêta une inondation. Les reliques de s. Vitale ont suivi son exemple: Saint Vitale de Castronovo est commémoré le 9 mars dans le Martyrologe Romain. Monk at the monastery of Saint Philip at Agira , Sicily.

Pilgrim to Rome , Italy. Hermit in the Calabria region of Italy for two years before returning to monastic life near Agira for a quiet 12 years. He returned to Calabria to escape the Muslim invasions of Sicily. He later lived at the monastery of Saint Elias in Carbone , Italy , and then as a cave hermit near Armento , Italy where his reputation attracted so many would-be students that he founded a monastery for them.

Later founded another monastery in Basilicata. Captured and abused by Muslim raiders, but eventually released. Founded a monastery on Mount Vulture near Rapolla , Italy where he finally retired.

San Vitale di Castronuovo Asceta. Castronovo di Sicilia, inizi del X sec. Nel territorio di Rapolla in Basilicata, san Vitale da Castronuovo, monaco. San Vitale venne al mondo a Kars-nubu una Castronovo di Sicilia di epoca islamica nei primi anni del La sua famiglia era di origine bizantina, ricca e di alto lignaggio.

Vi rimase cinque anni dedicandosi quotidianamente con eccellente impegno alle pie pratiche religiose e lavorative. In diverse circostanze si rivolse, con esito positivo, a Dio chiedendogli di porre rimedio a bisogni più o meno gravi. Gli eventi miracolosi legati alla sua vita proseguirono quando il governatore della provincia bizantina di Bari lo fece convocare, data la sua fama, per conoscerlo. Verso la fine del secolo questo convento fu preso di mira dagli invasori islamici per essere depredato.

I confratelli di san Vitale temendo il peggio si misero in salvo fuggendo, lui rimase ad affrontarli: Negli ultimi anni della sua esistenza terrena diede vita a due monasteri lucani: Si spense il 9 marzo , dopo aver indicato il nuovo abate: Una sua prima biografia, opera redatta da un monaco basiliano suo contemporaneo, in greco antico su pergamene andate perse, venne ritrovata nel monastero di Armento: San Vitale è patrono di Armento PZ e di Castronovo di Sicilia PA , paesi gemellati; viene festeggiato in entrambi il 9 marzo, ed in più a Castronovo ad inizio del mese di agosto.

Ritornato in Lucania si mise a restaurare il monastero dei Santi Adriano e Natalia, saccheggiato dai saraceni, ma in un secondo assalto, fu fatto prigioniero subendo molti maltrattamenti. Sepolto nella chiesa del monastero, dopo 30 anni per sua volontà espressa ancora in vita, fu trasferito dal nipote nel cenobio di Guardia Perticara, fondato dallo stesso nipote, accolto dal vescovo di Torri e dai fedeli.

Dopo altre traslazioni avvenute in altri monasteri e chiese, per mettere al sicuro le reliquie dalle incursioni, il corpo di s. Vitale insieme a quello di s. Luca di Demenna, fu trasferito nella cattedrale di Tricarico. La festa religiosa è posta al 9 marzo. Studied at the Pontifical French Seminary. Ordained on 26 April in the archdiocese of Tiranë-Durrës , Albania. Secretary of the Archbishop of Tiranë-Durrës. Arrested in Durres on 18 May in the Communist anti — Catholic persecutions.

Kthellë, Albania, 26 luglio — Durazzo, Albania, 9 marzo Fu ucciso mediante fucilazione presso il porto romano di Durazzo il 9 marzo Fu arrestato nel e, come accaduto anche ad altri, venne torturato quasi a morte. Il suo ultimo desiderio, ossia che almeno i bottoni della sua talare venissero conservati, venne realizzato proprio dal suo vescovo, che era detenuto con lui: Il segretario venne quindi fucilato presso il porto romano di Durazzo, in località Spitalla, il 9 marzo Dello stesso gruppo fanno parte altri diciannove sacerdoti diocesani.

Bienheureux Cyprian Dedë Nika. Beato Cipriano Dedë Nika Sacerdote francescano, martire. Studi e responsabilità nel francescanesimo albanese. Rimase orfano a cinque anni. Fu ordinato a Roma nel Il suo nome religioso era padre Cyprian Cipriano. Una perquisizione sotto le cineprese. Proprio in quel periodo iniziarono le persecuzioni ai danni dei credenti di tutte le fedi, a opera del partito comunista: Il fatto, documentato da un filmato girato in presa diretta dalla televisione di stato jugoslava, alle dipendenze del dittatore Tito, era in realtà una messa in scena pianificata apposta per mettere agli arresti i frati.

Anche padre Cyprian venne incarcerato e più volte sottoposto a torture. Lo racconta uno dei suoi compagni di prigionia, Ilir Bali: Non mi sono mai sentito più felice di allora: Ma la sua esposizione fu interrotta dalle torture: Mentre il frate pregava: La replica di padre Cyprian fu: Le sue ultime parole, riportate nel verbale processuale, furono: Perdoniamo i nostri nemici. L'Albania non muore con noi! U shugurua meshtar në Romë më Dha mësim në Seminarin e Fretërve Minorë. Mësues i xhakojve , Mësues i novicëve , Ministër Provincial , Drejtor i Seminarit Françeskan , Guardian i Gjuhadolit prej vitit derisa vdiq.

U arrestua në Shkodër dhe u burgos më U dënua me vdekje më Nacque a Scutari il Fu ordinato sacerdote a Roma il Insegnante nel Seminario dei Frati Minori. Maestro dei chierici , Maestro dei novizi , Ministro Provinciale , Direttore del Seminario Francescano , Guardiano di Gjuhadol dal fino alla morte.

Fu condannato a morte il Bienheureux Mati Pal Prennushi. Beato Mattia Pal Prennushi Sacerdote francescano, martire. Fu padre provinciale dal al , anno della sua morte, avvenuta dopo il suo ultimo arresto, offerta in sacrificio per il bene della sua patria. Pal Prennushi nacque a Scutari il 2 ottobre Per questo motivo, nel , venne arrestato dai serbi e condannato a morte: Dopo la guerra, venne inviato nel distretto di Malësi e Madhe.

Quando gli abitanti del luogo insorsero contro Ahmet Zogu, che si era autoproclamato re col nome di Zog I, padre Mati rimase al loro fianco: Nel divenne padre provinciale dei francescani albanesi, ma tre anni dopo, nel settembre , venne arrestato dai comunisti, che nel frattempo avevano preso il potere.

Sei mesi di torture non servirono a fare in modo che accettasse di collaborare con i suoi persecutori, i quali, per incastrarlo, avevano nascosto delle armi sotto un altare, come accaduto anche in altri casi.

U shugurua meshtar në Shkodër më Prej vitit deri në vitin veproi në Tiranë. Prej vitit Delegat Provincial, duke zëvendësuar Ministrin Provincial Atë Anton Harapin, meqë kishte hequr dorë pasi e kishin thirrur që të qenë pjesë e Regjencës. Prej vitit Ministër Provincial derisa e pushkatuan. U arrestua dhe u burgos në Shkodër më Ordinato sacerdote a Scutari il Anton Harapi, rinunciatario per essere stato chiamato a far parte della Reggenza.

Dal Ministro Provinciale fino alla fucilazione. Arrestato e imprigionato a Scutari il Çiprijan Nikaj, il vescovo Mons. Frano Gjini e ad altri. Évêque et martyr en Albanie. Beato Francesco Gjini Vescovo e martire. Scutari, Albania, 20 settembre — 11 marzo Inseriti tutti e tre nel gruppo dei 38 martiri uccisi in Albania durante il regime comunista, sono stati beatificati a Scutari il 5 novembre Frano Gjini nacque a Scutari in Albania il 20 settembre Ordinato sacerdote, fu parroco a Laç, Vlora e Durazzo, città dove venne consacrato vescovo.

I montanari non accettavano le loro leggi, ma qualcuno scese a patti con i capi politici. Tuttavia, sul punto di rientrare, si vide impedito dal governo, in un esilio di fatto. Monsignor Gjini, quindi, divenne suo sostituto e dovette partire per Scutari. Opposto al regime, per il bene del suo gregge. Non molto tempo dopo, venne convocato da Enver Hoxha in persona.

Il capo di Stato voleva chiedergli di prendere il comando di una Chiesa nazionale, separata da Roma, proprio come aveva o avrebbe domandato ad altri due vescovi, i monsignori Gaspër Thaçi e Vinçenc Prennushi, i quali si mostrarono contrari.

Anche monsignor Gjini fu dello stesso parere: Relegato in una cella di un metro quadrato di ampiezza, incatenato mani e piedi, ne veniva tratto fuori solo per venire torturato. Ad esempio, veniva buttato in una vasca di acqua gelata, oppure subiva scosse elettriche, o ancora gli venivano messi granelli di sale su ferite appena aperte, o punte di legno sotto le unghie. I lindur në Shkodër, më U shugurua meshtar më Në vitin u emërua Vikar i Përgjithshëm i Arqidioqezës së Durrësit.

U shugurua Ipeshkëv më U arrestua në Shkodër më Fu ordinato sacerdote il Fu consacrato vescovo il Alessandro di Orosh in Mirdita. Nigris che, partito per Roma alla fine di marzo del , il regime non fece rientrare più in Albania. Fu arrestato a Scutari il Son histoire a sans aucun doute quelques fondements historiques, même si elle a été grandement améliorée par des légendes.

Roi de Cornouailles, il mena tout d'abord une vie déréglée. Puis il se retira dans le Pays de Galles et en Irlande pour faire pénitence. Il se rendit enfin en Écosse pour en être le missionnaire et c'est là qu'il fut tué par des pirates.

Saint Constantin de Cornouailles, Higougène martyr ou Notre Père saint Constantin fut, selon une tradition, le neveu du célèbre roi Arthur, à qui ce dernier légua sa couronne, quand il fut mortellement blessé. Selon une autre tradition, il fut un roi de Cornouailles, qui abandonna son royaume et devint moine dans la cellule de Saint David. Puis, partant pour un autre pays, il y construisit un monastère.

Les traditions les plus importantes le concernant viennent d'Écosse. Mais elle mourut, et lui, se lamentant sur sa mort et refusant d'être consolé, transmis son royaume à son fils, et dit adieu à tous, quitta son royaume et passa en Irlande.

Arrivant à un certain monastère, pendant sept ans, il travailla humblement transportant du grain au moulin du monastère et depuis celui-ci. Un jour, il était assis dans le moulin et il se dit: Peu de temps après, il quitta le monastère et se rendit auprès de saint Columba, et après cela, il fut envoyé par saint Kentigern, évêque de Glasgow, prêcher la Parole de Dieu dans le Galloway, dans le sud-ouest de l'Ecosse.

Là, il fut élu higoumène d'un monastère, où il vécut une vie sainte jusqu'à la vieillesse. Selon une autre tradition, il fonda un monastère à Govan sur la Clyde. Puis il alla prêcher la parole de Dieu dans tout le pays, et arriva finalement à l'île de Kintyre.

Là, quelques hommes mauvais le suivirent, et, s'approchant de son assistant, ils lui coupèrent la main. Le saint le guérit immédiatement en le touchant. Puis ces hommes vils firent pleuvoir les coups sur le saint, lui coupèrent le bras, et le laissèrent pour mort.

Appelant à lui les frères, le saint les réconforta par des paroles spirituelles. Puis il s'endormit en leur présence. Selon la tradition écossaise, saint Constantin a été martyrisé, en , et selon la tradition irlandaise en Version française Claude Lopez-Ginisty.

Constantine of Scotland M AC. Died ; feast in Cornwall and Wales is March 9. King Constantine of Cornwall is reputed to have been married to the daughter of the king of Brittany and to have led a life full of vice and greed until he was led to conversion by Saint Petroc.

Upon the death of his wife, he is said to have ceded his throne to his son in order to become a penitent monk at St. Mochuda Monastery at Rahan, Ireland. He performed menial tasks at the monastery, then studied for the priesthood and was ordained. Constantine became a missionary to the Picts in Scotland under Saint Columba and then Saint Kentigern, preached in Galloway, and founded and became abbot of a monastery at Govan near the River Clyde.

In his old age, on his way to Kintyre, he was attacked by pirates who cut off his right arm, and he bled to death. He is regarded as Scotland's first martyr, although his story is often contradictory and unreliable. It is probable that the Scottish martyr is not the same person as the British king. There are two places in Cornwall called Constantine: The church on the first site was the larger and survived as a monastery until the 11th century.

HE is said to have been a British king, who, after the death of his queen, resigned the crown to his son, and became a monk in the monastery of St. It is added that he afterwards went into North Britain, and joined St. Columba in preaching the gospel amongst the Picts, who then inhabited a great part of what is now called Scotland. He founded a monastery at Govane, near the river, Cluyd, converted all the land of Cantire to the faith of Christ, and died a martyr by the hands of infidels, towards the end of the sixth century.

He was buried in his monastery of Govane, and divers churches were erected in Scotland under his invocation. But it seems most probable that the Scottish martyr is not the same person with the British king. Colgan supposes him to have been an Irish monk who had lived in the community of St. The Lives of the Saints. Born a Cornish prince , the son of King Paternus. After a life of vice, Constantine had a conversion experience, repented his sins, and studied the faith in Wales and Ireland.

Missionary to the Scottish Picts. Worked with Saint Columbanus. Abbot of a monastery at Govan. Two places in Cornwall are named for him. He died in Constantine was a king of Cornwall , the son of Padeon, whose conversion probably dates from a confrontation with St.

Petroc who was sheltering a stag which had taken refuge with him from Constantine 's huntsmen…. Constantine married a princess from Brittany who died shortly after the marriage and the King was so desolated that he left his kingdom and sought sanctuary, first at S.

David's monastery at Menevia and then in Ireland at Rathin, made famous by St. He arrived at Rathin unannounced and was set to work in the granary, grinding corn in a stone quern. One day he was heard by one of the monks laughing and saying to himself, "Is this really Constantine, King of Cornwall, who wore a helmet and bore a shield, working this handmill?

It is the same, and yet it is not". This conversation was reported to the abbot who took him into the community and after a while he was ordained priest. He had spent seven years at the abbey before he was recognised and by now he was quite an old man, but he desired to visit Iona and set off with the blessing of the abbot.

Columba received him kindly and sent him on to Sr. Kentigern, whom he may have met when he was at Menevia. While visiting Glasgow he stayed for some time with St. Mirren at Paisley and the two became great friends so that Constantine decided to build himself a monastery nearby at Govan by the river. It is interesting that the ruined church of St. Constantine , on the shore of the Bay that bears his name, has the parish of St Merryn adjoining it and the font in St Merryn's Church comes from St Constantine's.

Constantine had founded his monastery at Govan he still felt impelled to preach the Faith of Christ to the heathen and he went to Kintyre with a party of his monks. There, by Campbeltown Loch a party of robbers came upon him and hacked him and his one attendant to pieces.

The ruins of a church at Kilchouslan are supposed to mark the spot where the first of the martyrs of Scotland was attacked and left to die, bleeding to death from a severed arm. His brethren found him and received his blessing before he died. They took his body back to Govan and buried him in the church that has his name. His sarcophagus was discovered in and has been restored to the church which keeps his festival on March 11th. Troparion of St Constantine Tone 5. Kontakion of St Constantine Tone 4.

Our holy Father Constantine was, according to one tradition, the nephew of the famous King Arthur, to whom the latter bequeathed his crown when he was mortally wounded. According to another, he was a king of Cornwall who abandoned his kingdom and became a monk in St. Then, leaving for another land, he built a monastery there. The fullest traditions concerning him come from Scotland.

They state that he was the son of Paternus, king of Cornwall, and married the daughter of the king of Brittany. But she died, and he, grieving over her death and refusing to be comforted, delivered his kingdom to his son, and bidding farewell to all, left his kingdom and crossed over to Ireland.

Coming to a certain monastery, for seven years he worked humbly carrying grain to and from the monastery mill. One day he was sitting in the mill and said to himself; "Am I Constantine, king of Cornwall, whose head has so often worn the helmet and his body the breastplate? No, I am not. He then took him away from the mill, educated him, and raised him to the priesthood.

Soon after this, he left the monastery and went to St. Columba; and afterwards he was sent by St. There he was elected abbot of a monastery, where he lived a holy life until old age. According to another tradition, he founded a monastery at Govan on the Clyde. In his extreme old age, St. Constantine prayed God to give him a martyr's death, and he heard a voice from heaven saying that it should be as he had asked.

Then he went preaching the word of God throughout the land, and came eventually to the island of Kintyre. There some evil men followed him, and, coming up to his attendant, they cut off his hand. The saint immediately healed him with a touch. Then the evil men showered blows upon the saint, cut off his arm, and left him for dead. Calling the brethren to him, the saint comforted them with spiritual words.

Then he fell asleep in their presence.

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